Modern History

Main

WWI

Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

28 June 1914

Germany declares war on Russia

30 June 1914

Germany invades Belgium

3 August 1914

Germany declares war on France

3 August 1914

Britain declares war on Germany

19 August 1914

WWI

20 August 1914 - November 1918

Battle of Mons

September 1914

Between British and German forces

Battle of the Marne

September 1914

Between French and German forces that saw the end to the Schlieffen plan

War Commitee for German Industry established

September 1914

helped transform the economy by mobilizing industrial production for the needs of the military

Deadlock along the Western Front

October 1914 - September 1918

DORA

October 1914

British LAw of 1914 giving the government wide-ranging powers for the duration of war

First Battle of Ypres

November 1914

Between British and German forces

KRA set up

November 1914

The War MAterials Department, directed by Rathenau, determined war production, key materials, and labour. Shortages were met by using substitutes or ersatz goods.

Christmas

25 December 1914

fraternisation episode along western front that saw an end to the Schlieffen plan

Dardanelles Campaign

March 1915 - December 1915

The Allies' failed attempt to defeat Germany's ally Turkey

Treaty of London

April 1915

Brought Italy into the war on the side of the Allies

Sinking of Lusitania

may 1915

Munitions of war act passed in Britain

July 1915

brought private companies supplying the armed forces under the tight control of the newly created Ministry of Munitions, regulating wages, hours and employment conditions.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff take control of Germsany

1916

Patriotic Auxilary Service LAw

1916

Giving the German government control of all people between 17-60

Daylight Savings in Britain

1916

Central Purchasing Committee set up in Germany

1916

The British Naval Blockade imposed from the beginning of the war took away 80 per cent of Germany's export market. The war Ministry set up the ZEG to purchase goods in neutral countries.

Battle of Verdun

February 1916 - November 1916

Between German and French forces

Battle of the Somme

July 1916 - November 1916

Between British and German forces

Conscription in Britain

December 1916

Lloyd George British Prime Minister

December 1916 - 1923

Russian army faces massive desertion and mutiny

December 1916

German Unrestricted submarine campaign

February 1917 - 21 October 1918

Revolution in Russia

March 1917

brought about the overthrow of Tsar Nicholas II

Provisional Government in Russia

March 1917

Ended by a revolution in which the Bulscheviks took over

US declares war on Germany

April 1917

First American troops arrive in France

June 1917

Battle of Passchendaele

July 1917 - November 1917

also called third battle of Ypres, whose battlefield became a byword for mud and despair

Battle of Cambrai

November 1917

first successful use of tanks

Russia leaves the war

November 1917

Wilson announces his 14 points

January 1918

Representation of the People Act

1918

allowed female householders aged 30 and over to vote

Hindenburg Line attacks

27 September 1918 - 17 October 1918

Haigs forces attack the Hindenburg Line

The Armistice signed

11 November 1918

GERMANY

Formation of SPD

1875

The German Social Democratic Party

Split in SPD created USPD

April 1917

The German Social Democratic Party and The Independent Social Democratic PArty

The Kiel Mutiny

November 1918

Mutiny in the German navy. The sailors in the port of Wilhelmshaven refused to get up steam or raise the anchors. It spread to the city of Kiel where they were joined in protest by the workers.

Workers Soldiers Councils set up

4 November 1918

Political associations made up of workers and returning soldiers. Supported the ideas of socialism. Demanded social and political change. They demanded immediate end of the war.

Wilhelm II abdicates

9 November 1918

Germany is declared a republic

The first Freikorps units set up

December 1918

Noske's Freikorps began to suppress the Spartacists

5 January 1919

Spartacist Uprising in Berlin

5 January 1919

Deaths of Karl Liebnecht and Rosa Luxemburg

15 January 1919

First Weimar meeting

February 1919

Treaty of Versailles Signed

June 1919

A Diktat. Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine to France, the Saar and Danzig, the Polish corridor to Poland, all her colonies which were put under the control of the League of Nations. German Armed Forces limited to 100 000, no tanks, limited to 6 battleships, no submarines, air force disbanded. The Rhineland was demilitarised. No Anschluss. Germany had to accept the responsibility of the war and pay war reparations. A League of Nations was set up in which Germany was not allowed to join.

Hitler joined the NSDAP

September 1919

Revolution in Bavaria

8 November 1919

Eisner had declared Bavaria to be a socialist republic, an event which triggered the November revolution. Throughout April and May the radical protests were crushed by the Freikorps.

The Kapp Putsch

March 1920

Wolfgang Kapp led rightist nationalist Freikorps in their own bid for power in Berlin. They were defeated in a general strike.

The SA was formed

1921

The Sturn Abteilung

Germany makes first reparation payment

August 1921

Assassination of Walter Rathenau

June 1922

The German foreign minister

Germany unable to pay further reparations

December 1922

Occupation of the Ruhr

January 1923

French and Belgium troops occupied the Ruhr because of the failure in Germany paying the reparations

Passive Resistance

January 1923 - September 1923

Germans in the Ruhr refused to cooperate with the French

exchange rate for US$ was 150000marks

July 1923

Hyperinflation in Germany

Munich Beerhall Putsch

November 1923

The Nazis attempted to take power in Munich.

Dawes Plan

April 1924

Hitler in Landsberg Prison

April 1924 - December 1924

Sentenced to 5 years, but only spent 9 months in prison. In this time he wrote Mein Kampf.

French troops withdrawn from the Ruhr

August 1924

Germany signs Lacarno Trearties

October 1925

guaranteeing that each country was safe from invasion by the other and finally sending home French troops from the Ruhr

Germany joins the League of Nations

1926

May Elections - 12 seats

May 1928

Nazi Party membership reached 178 000

The Young Plan

June 1929

reduced the reparations figure and withdrew allied troops from Germany. Hitler was sentenced to five years in prison.

The Wall Street Crash

October 1929

Begining of the Great Depression

The Bruning Budget Passed

July 1930

The government had to balance the budget by cutting expenditure and increasing taxes

September Elections - 107 seats

September 1930

Nazis won 18.3 per cent of the vote

Unemployment hit 4.9 million

March 1931

street activity of SS & SA banned

April 1932

Hindenburg re-elected

april 1932

Ban on SA & SS lifted

June 1932

July elections - 230 seats

July 1932

November elections - 196

November 1932

Unemployment reached 6 million

January 1933

Law for The Protection of People and State

February 1933

The Enabling Act
Giving the government the power to issue laws regardless of the Reichstag.

The Reichstag Fire

27 February 1933

Goebells appointed as Propaganda Minister

March 1933

Law for the Removal of the Distress of the People and State

March 1933

The Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda was set up

March 1933

Law for the Co-ordination of the States with the Reich

April 1933

Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service

April 1933

The Law Against the Overcrowding of German Schools

April 1933

Removed many Jewish children from schools

The Law for the Restoration of a Public Service

April 1933

Began the removal of Jews from working for the government

Boycott of Jewish businesses throughout the Reich

April 1933

Burning of un-German books

May 1933

Law for the Reduction of Unemployment

June 1933

Law against the Establishment of New Parties

July 1933

The Nazi Party became the only legal political party in Germany

Concordat signed

july 1933

The Hereditary Farm Law

September 1933

Banned Jews from owning farmland

Germany left the League of Nations

October 1933

Strength Through Joy & Beauty of Labour set up

November 1933

November elections - 661 (100%)

November 1933

Law for the Reconstruction of the Reich

January 1934

Effectively abolished the German States

The Polish-German None-Aggression pact was signed

january 1934

A peace pact between Poland and Germany

Conscription reintroduced

March 1934

Germany violated the Treaty of Versailles

Night of the Long Knives

June 1934

Rohm and the leadership of the SA were surpressed

Law for the Promotion of Marriage

June 1934

Hitler Becomes Fuhrer

2 August 1934

Triumph of the Will

September 1934

The Nuremburg Laws

September 1935

The Reich Citizenship Law
The Law for the protection of German blood and honour
Jews lost their rights to German citizenship and were forbidden to marry Germans

Berlin Olympic Games

August 1936

Lebensborn program began under the SS

September 1936

Unemployment dropped to 1 million

January 1938

Anschluss

March 1938

Germany incorporated Austria into the Reich

The Military Service Act

May 1938

Aryan descent became a prerequisite for military service

Jewish Doctors were removed from the Medical Register

July 1938

They were only allowed to treat Jewish patients

All Jewish Businesses had to be registered

August 1938

Jewish Lawyers were deprived of their right to work

September 1938

Jewish people had to add 'Sarah' or 'Isreal' to their names

september 1938

Jews had to have 'J' stamped in their passports

October 1938

Kristalnacht

November 1938

The destruction of Jewish synagogues and property across much of Germany. They were fined 30 billion reichsmarks to pay for the damages

Aryanisation of Jewish Businesses

december 1938

Hitler threatened the annihilation of the Jews

January 1939

Germany occupied the rest of Czechoslavakia

March 1939

Britain and France give guarantees to Poland

March 1939

The Soviet-German Non-Aggression pact was signed

August 1939

The Soviet Union and Germany agreed to divide Poland between them.

Germany invaded Poland

September 1939

Britain and France declare war on Germany

3 september 1939

WORLD WAR II

3 September 1939 - May 1945

The start of the euthanasia program

October 1939

The Nazi's carried out euthanasia on physically and mentally handicapped people

GERMAN LEADERSHIP

King Wilhelm II

1888 - 9 November 1918

Chancellor Scheidemann

February 1919 - June 1919

President Ebert

6 February 1919 - February 1925

Chancellor Bauer

June 1919 - March 1920

Chancellor Stresemann

August 1923 - November 1923

President Hindenburg

may 1925 - august 1934

Chancellor Muller

June 1928 - March 1930

Chancellor Bruning

March 1930 - May 1932

Chancellor von Papen

June 1932 - November 1932

Chancellor Schleicher

December 1932 - January 1933

Chancellor Hitler

January 1933 - August 1934

March elections - 288 seats

March 1933

Hitler as Fuhrer

2 August 1934 - 1945

Army swears an Oath of Loyalty to Hitler

2 August 1934

LENI RIEFENSTAHL

Leni Riefenstahl Born

August 1902

First Solo Dance Performance

October 1923

Began Acting Career

December 1926

Her first film was released: The Holy Mountain

The Blue Light

November 1932

Leni Attended her first Nazi Rally

November 1932

Met Hitler for the First time

December 1932

Victory of Faith made

January 1933

Leni's first film for the Nazi regime

Triumph of the Will filmed

September 1934

Olympia filmed

August 1936

Olympia premiere

April 1938

COLD WAR

Bolscheviks under Lenin sieze power in Russia

November 1917

The Cairo Conference

1943

The Yalta Conference

February 1945

Germany would be divided into four.
The Soviet Union would join the war against Japan.
Countries in Eastern Europe would hold free and fair elections for new governments.
A United Nations would replace the League of Nations.

The Potsdam Conference

July 1945 - August 1945

6 million Germans in Eastern Europe would be resettled into Germany.
Each of the Allies could take what they wanted from Germany.
Reparations claims for the USSR were to be taken from the Eastern zone.
A Polish provisional government established.
All troops withdrawn from Iran.

The Atom Bombs are dropped

August 1945

Iron Curtain

March 1946

Churchill's made a speech, predicting that there would be an Iron Curtain through Europe

The Truman Doctrine

March 1947

President Truman paid for British troops to stay in Greece.
Truman promised to send money, equipment, and advice to any country threatened by communist takeover.

The Berlin Blockade

1948

Stalin blocked off all railways and roads into Berlin

The Marshal Plan

april 1948

The US gave $17 billion to help countries to rebuild Europes prosperity

China becomes a communist country

september 1949

The Korean War

june 1950 - july 1953

The CIA coup in Iran

August 1953

The CIA coup in Guatemala

June 1954

Riots in Poland and Hungry

June 1956

The Suez Crisis

October 1956