To include artists, music styles/periods, composers, historic & political events, & scientific discoveries
First to conceive of geocentricity, which remained popular theory for 1400 yeas! Greek Philosopher
Greek philosopher. Emaphasized importance of particulars over absolutes or ideals.
Law of Buoyancy; value of pi; Advantage of Levers
End of Roman Republic after 479 years.
Christian era begins
Writes antiphonal psalmodies(Schaeffer 90)
Emphasized a true biblical Christianity. Introduced antiphonal psalmody &hymns to the West, along w/ the Ambrosian chant. (Smith xvi)
Emphasized true biblical Christianity.
Bishop of Milan 374-397
Introduced antiphonal psalmody & singing of hymns.
Emphasized biblical Christianity
Lasted 506 yrs. (30 BC-476 AD)
Built Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (consecrated in 537)
Characterized by formalized, stylized, symbolic masaics & icons.
Had all the modes of worship of the Western church arranged into a systematic whole, called the Gregorian chant. (Smith, xvii)
Introduced Gregorian Change (impersonal, mystical)
Son of Pippin, became King of the Frnaks in 768 & crowned emperor by Pope Leo III in rome on Christmas Day 800.
British epic takes place in Scandinavia
Rounded arches, thick walls, dim interiors
Pointed arches, high windows, clerestory (windows set high in the walls), flying buttresses.
Recognizing the corrupting effect of wealth, forbade his followers to receive money.
Placed revelation & human reason on an equal footing.
A Dominican monk. Taught man was fallen, not his intellect. Thus, man could rely on his own human wisdom & people were free to mix teachings of Bible w/ teachings of non-Christian philosophers.
Author of "Divine Comedy;" one of first to write in the vernacular. Mixed Christina & class'l. pagan world in his work. Demonstrated 2 views of love: sensual (lower story, physical) & spiritual (upper story/ideal).
Can see in his "The Last Judgment" how he was 1st to give nature a more proper place and painted people as real people yet 'larger than life.' Designed the bell tower, the Campanile, next to the cathedral in Florence near the end of his lifetime.
Oxford professor; taught that the Bible was the supreme authority.
Produced his English translation of the Bible.
Influenced by Wycliffe. Spoke out, affirming the Bible as the only final authority.
His architecture shifted emphasis from Gothic back to classical. Built churches in Florence & the Foundling Hospital (1st Renaissance building). His cathedral dome in Florence is one of the wonders of the world, a great mathematical feat.
Middle English poem from late 14th century, written by unknown British author (perhaps "Perl" Poet).
Set in Camelot of King Arthur & the Round Table.
Greatest Flemish (N. Europe) painter. "Adoration of the Lamb"--a real landscape communicating the real truth of Scripture. Christ, sacrificed, but alive!
Father of Renaissance painting. Gave his work a true-to-life quality. First painter to consistently use central perspective, to bring light into paintings from naturally correct direction, & to paint people w/ their feet standing on the ground. Portrayed Adam & Eve biblically--real people in a real world (68).
Painter of "The Red Virgin," a picture of the king's mistress, Agnes Sorel painted as Mary w/ all the holiness removed...along w/ its meaning. https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcREwB-cdMNmzlg1T4G2hObL3pzsyMwbPJu9UZPk8QUu3Nm8wexa
Jan van Eyck, 1390-1441
Anticipated where humanism would end. "Man beginning w/ himself would never be able to come to meaning on the basis of mathematics...one only ends w/ mechanics...Everything, including man, is the machine."
Wrote passionate diary entries regarding Martin Luther. (Schaeffer 96)
1543 "On the Revolution" on Heliocentric Theory is published at Copernicus' death.
Sculpted men "tearing themselves out of the rock." "Man will make himself great...by himself will tear himself out of nature & free himself from it..."
Helps to sow the seeds of a musical renaissance in Germany. Wrote "A Mighty Fortress is Our God." (Smith, xvii)
Painted "The School of Athens" w/ Plato pointing one finger upward & Aristotle w/ his fingers spread wide & down toward the earth. Plato valued absolutes or ideals, while Aristotle valued particulars.
by Ottaviano Petrucci in Venice
Uncircumcised, humanistic ideal of man. Man is great!
Addressed his "Institutes of the Christian Religion" in 1536 to the same Francis I that brought Leonardo to France.
(CC History Card #94)
Just 2 yrs. before Leonardo's death.
Prague, Czechoslovakia, rich gold nose
Austria to Prague, Caechoslavakia
One of the most important musical figures of the Baroque period, culminating in the work of Bach & Handel. (Smith, xvii)
Father of Modern Philosophy (Schaeffer 152)
Neither idealized art nor demeaned it; he lived in the midst of God's world & did not need to make himself God. Rather, he could use God's world & its form in his painting(100).
Poet & political writer--Pressed case a/g Charles I & the Royalists. Imprisoned briefly after Charles II was restored to the throne of England in 1660. Published "Paradise Lost" in 1667.
Set in Puritan Boston. Written before the Salem Witch Trials.
published in 1719
By John Milton (1608-1674)
(Wile & Durnell 37)
His music was a direct result of the Reformation culture & the biblical Christianity of the time. "There would have been no Bach had there been no Luther." (Schaeffer 92)
Core of his creative work is a treasure of cantatas that make up more than half of his music. (Smith xviii)
"Father of Enlightenment" (Schaeffer 120)
"Man was born free, but everywhere he is in chains!"
Inspired by "The Messiah," he wrote his masterpiece "The Creation" in his later years. Includes "The Heavens Are Telling," his setting of verses from Ps. 19. (Smith xviii)
"The Peale Family" 1770-1773
Perhaps the most purely musical composer, did a magnificent arrangement of the shortest of all psalms, the praise-filled Ps. 117. (Smith xviii)
At one time, a rebellious pupil of Haydn. His music was the bridge from the Classical period to Romanticism. In his setting of verses from Ps. 19, "The Heavens are Telling," one can almost see the stars shining. (Smith xviii)
German mathematician & philosopher
1844 Telegraph; Morse code; portrait artist
Early Romantic Jewish-Christian composer, who set many psalms to music. i.e. "Lift Thine Eyes to the Mountains" from Ps. 121 in his oratorio "Elijah." (Smith xviii)
Originally written under the name "First Impressions," probably around 1799. Published anonymously at first. (Greenholt 63)
Published under masculine pseudonym, Curer Bell until 1848. (Greenholt 85)
born in Austria
Russian; Truth in literature
German Classic-Romantic composer, whose music is inspired by a deep concern w/ man's mortal lot & his hope of heaven. (Smith xviii)
Combines realistic dialogue & ordinary characters w/ social issues
Major American marine painter & watercolorist of all time.
by Charles Dickens(Greenholt 75)
Gift of Music
Discovered radium; 1st woman to win Nobel Price; brought X-rays to battlefield
British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic
German; General & Specific Theories of Relativity; 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
"The Hiding Place"; The Netherlands
1948 Mother Teresa began working in Calcutta with the Little Sisters of the Poor.
Stories within "Favorite Father Brown Stories" are taken from "The Innocence of Father Brown" (1911) & "The Wisdom of Father Brown" (1914)
Receive Nobel Prize, 1962
published by Malcolm Muggeridge