Unit 3



1484 - 1531

Cathedral priest of the Great Minster in Zurich whose preaching spurred the Zwinglian Reformation
-Evangelical reforms took place
-council abolished relics and images, removed paintings and decorations in churches
-replaced Mass with a liturgy
-abolished all remnants of papal Christianity: monasticism, pilgrimages, clerical celibacy, pope's authority
-1529 Marburg Colloquy: tried to form alliance between Luther and Zwingli, but they disagreed on the idea of transubstantiation.

Michael Sattler

1495 - 1527

Swiss Anabaptist who was put on trial and executed for his beliefs
-wrote "The Schleitheim Confession"
-his beliefs were interpreted as legally and socially offensive by his accusers

Menno Simons

1496 - 1561

Dutch leader most responsible for rejuvenation Dutch Anabaptism
-dedicated his life to spread peaceful, evangelical Anabaptism
-stressed separation from the world to live a truly Jesus-like life
-Mennonites spread from Netherlands into Germany, Poland, Lithuania, and the New World


1500 - 1600

Radical Christian reformers who believed in complete separation of church and state
-opposed by both Catholics and Protestants
-believed in adult baptism
-no one should be forced to accept the truth of the Bible
-refused to hold political office or bear arms
-all believers considered equal
-return to the ways of the early church: simple Christian living
-Amish and Mennonites are remnants

Schleitheim Confession


A statement of the basic beliefs of the Anabaptists, written by Michael Sattler
-defends Anabaptists understanding of "believer's baptism"
-calls for radical separation from culture
-no participation in the worldly politics, economy/law, or military
-"the ban" (excommunication)

Calvin and Anglicans

Thomas More

1478 - 1535

Advisor to King Henry VIII , Lord Chancellor
-opposed Henry's Act of Supremacy and denied he was the head of the church
-imprisoned for not taking an oath required by the First Succession Act, because it disparaged the power of the Pope
-tried and beheaded for treason

Thomas Cranmer

1489 - 1556

Archbishop of Canterbury and author of the Book of Common Prayer
-authority of the Bible over spiritual life
-secular authority above the pope
-promoted official English Bible
-under Henry's son, played a leading role in creating a Protestant core in The Church of England
-under Bloody Mary was put on trial for heresy: at first he recanted, but then he renounced recantations and was sentenced to death

King Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

King of England who initiated the English Reformation
-wanted his marriage annulled by the pope, who would not allow it for political reasons
-Henry went to English church courts instead
-Thomas Cranmer declared the marriage null and void, and validated Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn
-requested Parliament to break Church of England from Rome
-Act of Supremacy made the king head of the church, giving him control of doctrine, clerical appointments, and discipline

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Leader of Protestant Calvinsim, who believed in "predestination"
-derived from emphasis on absolute sovereignty of God
-God had predestined some people to be saved (the elect), and some people to be damned (the reprobate)
-Jesus is present in the Lord's Supper, but only spiritually
-Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as militant international form of Protestantism

Act of Supremacy


Declared the king (King Henry VIII at the time) as the only supreme head of the Church of England
-official break with Rome and the papacy
-gave king control of doctrine, discipline, and clerical appointments
-little changed in matters of doctrine, theology, and ceremony

predestination and election


-TOTAL depravity (can't freely choose God)
-LIMITED atonement (Christ's redeeming act only for elect)
-IRRESISTABLE grace (elect can't choose not to accept it)
-PERSEVERANCE of the saints (elect will not fall away)

Presbyterian church government


-decision making begins at the bottom (with the laity), and moves up through elected individuals
-local churches elect presbyteries
-presbyteries elect synods
-synods elect General Assembly

The Institutes


Book written by John Calvin
-systematic presentation of Christian theology which he constantly improved and enlarged upon
-synthesis of Protestant thought
-secured Calvin's reputation as one of the new leaders of Protestantism

Book of Common Prayer


Revised Protestant liturgy created by Thomas Cranmer
-helped to move Church of England in a Protestant direction
-one of the factors that aroused opposition and prepared the way for Mary's virulent reaction against Protestantism

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Great female monarch, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
-during her reign England became the leader of the Protestant nations
-repealed the Catholic laws of Mary's reign
-religious policy based on moderation and compromise: Protestant church service revised to make it more acceptable to Catholics
-generally avoided open military action against major powers



Anglican Protestants inspired by Calvinist theology
-wanted King James to eliminate episcopal organization in favor of a Presbyterian model
-purity of worship and doctrine
-many of England's gentry became Puritans:formed a substantial part of the House of Commons

Catholic Reformation and Wars of Religion

Ignatius Loyola

1491 - 1556

Founder of the Jesuits
-knight wounded in battle in 1521, while healing experienced conversion
-transforming culture
-wrote The Spiritual Excercises, to help Jesuits live as the "contemplative in action"

Francis Xavier

1506 - 1552

Jesuit who carried the message of Catholic Christianity to the East
-converted in tens of thousands in India, reached Japan in 1549
-converted thousands of Japanese
-died of fever on way to China



Society of Jesus, a monastic order founded by Ignatius Loyola
-transforming culture
-"contemplative in action"
-used The Spiritual Excercises
-founded schools, universities and seminaries across Europe
-concentrated on Protsetant areas:conversion through education
-became the first organized missionaries

The Spiritual Excercises


Writings by Ignatius Loyola to guide participants in spiritual retreats
-purification of heart and will
-focus of lives on God alone

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Gathering of religious figures to decide on doctrinal issues
-reaffirmed traditional Catholic beliefs
-faith and works necessary for salvation
-seven sacraments
-scripture is authority, as traditionally interpreted by Pope or councils
-Roman Catholic church now possessed a clear body of doctrine that brought confidence and unity

Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Civil wars in France between Catholics and Huguenots
-Valois monarchy was very Catholic
-40 to 50 percent of French nobility became Huguenots (French Calvinists), and were a potentially dangerous political threat
-towns and provinces were also eager to revolt against the monarchy
-coronation of Henry IV, Huguenot leader who converts to Catholicism to be accepted, ends wars
-Edict of Nantes (1598) declares Castholicism official religion of France, while also gauranteeing religious freedom for Huguenots

Peace of Westphalia


End of Thirty Years' War in Germany
-ensured all German states were free to choose their own religion
-states of the Holy Roman Empire acknowledged as independent
-made clear that religion and politics were now separate in the HRE
-political motives became the guiding forces in public affairs, religion became more a matter of personal conviction and individual choice



Religious movement within Lutheranism that started after Thirty Years' War
-against "dead orthodoxy"
-new life, conversion, regeneration
-Bible above theology (small group study)
-Irenic spirit: not heresy-hunting

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment I


1473 - 1543

Polish astronomer and mathemetician
-On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
-heliocentric conception of the universe
-caused people to doubt Ptolemaic system (earth-centered)


1564 - 1642

First European to make systematic observations of the heavens using a telescope
-inaugurated new age in astronomy
-universe composed of material similar to that on earth
-The Starry Messenger
-church rejected Copernican system and forced Galileo to recant his ideas

Scientific Revolution

1600 - 1700

Intellectual revolution challenging the medieval beliefs about the nature of the external world and reality
-taught Europeans to view the universe and their place in it in a new way
-laid the foundations for modern science
-transition to the largely secular, rational, and materialistic perspective that has defined modern Western mentality

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

French scientist who sought to keep science and religion united
-Pensees (Thoughts): tried to convert rationalists to Christianity by appealing to both reason and emotions
-Christianity not contrary to reason
-it is worthwhile to assume God exists, if he does we win all, if he does not, we lose nothing
-reason can only get one so far, faith is the final step
"This is what constitutes faith: God experienced by the heart, not by the reason."

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

English mathematician who pieced together synthesis for a new cosmology
-culmination of theories of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo
-universal law of gravitation
-three laws of motion
-created a new cosmology in which the world was seen in mechanistic terms

Tabula Rasa


John Locke's theory of knowledge
-Lit. "blank slate", the idea that everyone is born with a blank mind
-knowledge derived from environment, not heredity
-reason, not faith
-by changing environment and subjecting people to proper influences, they could be changed and new society created


1694 - 1778

Prolific author, greatest figure of the enlightment
-pamphlets, novels, plays, letters, histories
-criticism of traditional religion
-religious toleration

The Enlightenment

1700 - 1800

Movement of intellectuals who "dared to know"
-application of scientific method to an understanding of every aspect of life
-rejection of traditional Christianity
-emergence of secularization
-travel literature
-inspiration from Newton (rules of reasoning) and Locke (tabula rasa)


1700 - 1800

Religious outlook built on the Newtonian world-machine
-elegant design of the universe implies existence of a "mechanic" who created it and allowed it to run according to its natural laws
-no interference from God, no direct involvement with what he created
-rejected religious miracles and Jesus' resurrection

Laws of Nature

1700 - 1800

Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment II

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Political thinker who advocated the state's claim to absolute authority over its subjects
-people must form a commonwealth to prevent themselves from destroying each other
-commonwealth places collective power into the hands of a sovereign authority (preferably a single ruler) who serves as executer, legislator and judge
-rebellion must be surpressed

John Locke

1632 - 1704

English political thinker who argued against the absolute rule of one man
-humans live in a state of freedom and equality
-inalienable rights: life, liberty, property
-constitutional government and protection of rights

The Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

Bloodless revolution in England when Catholic monarch (James II) is replaced by Protestant William of Orange
-Bill of rights: parliament levies taxes, elects members without monarch's interference, freedom from cruel and unusual punishment
-more democratic representation and rights protection
-religious toleration

Social Contract Theory

1700 - 1800

Political theory implying people give up their sovereignty to a government and law in order to maintain order within the society
-Thomas Hobbes: individual sovereignty, one all-powerful ruler/authority, state of nature is a state of war
-John Locke: establish social contract to protect property above all, democratically elected government
-JeanJacques Rousseau: The Social Contract: leave the state of nature and submit to the "general will", popular sovereignty
-state authority comes from consent of the governed
-giving up certain freedoms is within one's own self-interest


1700 - 1800

"Let it alone" economic doctrine of the Physiocrats
-"natural law" of economics
-repudiation of mercantilism and controlled economy for the benefit of state
-supply and demand made it imperative that individuals be left free to pursue economic self-interest

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Social contract theorist
-The Social Contract (1762): leave the state of nature and submit to general will
-General will discerns law, popular authority
-freedom: obedience to the law
-best for majority is best for individual

Adam Smith

1723 - 1774

Scottish Philosopher who made the clearest statement of laissez-faire in his The Wealth of Nations
-a founder of the modern discipline of economics
-state should not interfere with economic matters
-laid foundation for economic liberalism
-government should have only three basic funtions: protect from invasion (army), defend individuals from injustice and oppression (police), and to keep up public works (roads, etc)

Thomas Jefferson

1743 - 1826

American Republican and author of The Declaration of Independence
-began war for American independence
-affirmed Enlightenment's natural rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
-declared colonies to be free and independent states absolved from allegiance to the British crown

Mary Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

English writer viewed as the founder of modern European feminism
-Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792)
-pointed out contradiction of those who thought that women should obey men, yet thought arbitrary power of monarchs over subjects was wrong
-Enlightenment means innate reason in all human beings, therefore since women have reason they should have equal rights in education, and economic and political life

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

War for American Independence from Britain
-devised a new constitution
-central government distinct from and superior to the governments of individual states
-divided into three branches that could check the functioning of others: presidential, judicial (courts), and legislative (senate, house of rep.)

French Revolution


Social and political movement in France that destroyed much of the old regime
-replaced monarchy with a democratic republic
-changes based on enlightenment principals: liberty equality fraternity, secularism, individual rights and freedoms
-The Third Estate (made up of commoners) acts as a National Assembly and draws up a constitution
-urban uprisings: the fall of the Bastille
-Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen: charter of basic liberties