Jessica George: What did oralists see as their primary goal in teaching deaf children? How did this contrast with the goals of the manualists? (DUE Nov 11)
“Oralists sought to develop the social skills of deaf students. Their primary goal was not education in the traditional sense of imparting facts and analytical skills to their pupils, but to make deaf children as similar to hearing children as possible, to fit them into American society.” (pg.121) Oralist schools attempted to prohibit the use of signs or fingerspelling in all aspects of its students’ lives. Manualists believe in signing and fingerspelling unlike the oralists. They also believed it was wrong to try and make deaf students try to speak. Oralists and manualists views differed greatly. Manualists belived in signing unlike oralists. (Jessica George)
Alisha Hopkins: Describe the differences in the way manualists and oralists "marketed" their methods to the public. (DUE Nov 11)
Manualists and oralists, although working towards the same objective, are on opposite sides of the spectrum when it comes to the methods of how to attain this goal. On one hand, manualists believe that their methods give the Deaf a sense of pride, and culture. It gives them a language in order to communicate with one another, and with the world. “They found it rapid, facile, and precise, unlike speech or speech reading” (page 106). Oralists, on the other hand, ban any trace of signing, believing it to prohibit assimilation into mainstream culture. They see it as a divide, a mark, which sets them apart from the rest of the world in a derogatory way. Many influential politicians, school boards and teachers endorsed oralist methods, while openly slamming the beliefs of manualists. Throughout all of this negativity however, manualism lived on. (Alisha Hopkins, page 106-107)
Jarrett McAdams: What role did hearing parents of deaf children play in the move to oralism in the late 19th and early 20th century? How did Bell's organization (the AAPTSD) interact with parents' groups? (DUE Nov 11)
Jarrett McAdams: Hearing parents strongly promoted oralism because they wanted their deaf children to be as normal as possible. The AAPTSD pushed oralism to parents with the support of Alexander Graham Bell.