United States History

Main

St. Augustine, Florida

1598

-French Protestants (Huguenots) went to the New World to freely practice their religion, and they formed a colony near modern-day St. Augustine, Florida
-Spain, which oversaw Florida, reacted violently to the Huguenots because they were trespassers and because they were viewed as heretics by the Catholic Church.
-Spain sent a force to the settlement and massacred the fort's inhabitants
-The settlement is considered to be the first permanent European settlement in the US

Triangular Trade

1600 - 1800

-Created as a result of mercantilism
-European merchants purchased African slaves with goods manufactured in Europe or imported from Asian colonies
-These merchants sold slaves in the Caribbean for commodities (sugar, cotton, tobacco)
-Caribbean commodities were later sold in Europe and North America
-Trade thrived because each partner could get the resources it wanted by exchanging resources that it had available

Jamestown

1607

-Named for James I, Queen Elizabeth's successor in England
-James granted charters for charter colonies in the New World
-The Virginia Company of London settled Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement
-Swampy location led to disease and contaminated water sources
-Despite location and hostility with Native Americans, John Smith's harsh, charismatic leadership of the colony helped keep it from collapsing
-In 1619, the first group of African slaves arrive

"Starving Time"

1609 - 1610

-A period of starvation endured by the Jamestown colonists, caused by a series of conflicts between the colonists and the Native Americans limited the colonists ability to trade for supplies and to farm their own food
-A large number of colonists died and other tried to flee, however, boats with supplies intercepted the colonists and forced them to return to Jamestown
-With additional support from England, development of new industries, and creation of new trade partnerships, the settle was able to survive

Separatists and the Plymouth

1620

-Separatists: Puritans who believed the Church of England was beyond saving and felt that they must break away
-They traveled on the Mayflower and became known as the Pilgrims
-The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth, England, in September 1620, and landed in Provincetown Harbor, settling in Plymouth, Massachusetts
-The Pilgrims formed the Mayflower Compact, which provided for a government guided by the majority
-William Bradford served as the Plymouth Colony's first governor

Massachusetts Bay Company

1629

-Joint-stock company chartered by a group of Puritans escaping King James I
-Led by John Winthrop
-These Puritans did not undergo the "starving time" that had often plagued other first-year colonies
-The government developed to include a governor and a representative assembly

Dominion of New England

1686 - 1689

-An administrative body created by King James II that oversaw British colonies in the New England region
-Put in place to implement the Navigation Acts and to assist the colonies in defending themselves against hostile French and Native American forces
-The Dominion Governor-in-Chief, Edmund Andros, outlawed town meetings, disputed titles to certain colonial lands, and proselytized on behalf of the Church of England
-New England colonists had originally been in favor been in gavor of some sort of voluntary association, but the Dominion was very unpopular because of these types of impositions.

Half-Way Covenant

1690

-Decision by Puritan colony churches to allow the grandchildren of those who did not have the personal experience of conversion to participate in select church affairs
-Previously, only the children of those who had experienced conversion could participate
-Reflected the decline of zealous piety among New Englanders

Salem Witch Trials

1692

-Several young girls in Salem Village claimed to be tormented by the occult activities of certain neighbors
-Twenty+ executed
-Puritan ministers finally intervened to stop the executions
-Theories: political and class divisions in Salem; economic stresses from providing for growing families; the gender-biased view that women were more likely to follow evil

The Enlightenment

1715 - 1789

-Connects to the idea of Deism, in which the universe was created by God and then abandoned; no supernatural controls would be exerted and all things were explainable by reason
-Enlightenment philosophy dictated that human reason was adequate to solve mankind's problems and, correspondingly, much less faith was needed in the central role of God as an active force in the universe
-Idea moved from Europe to become the New World's seed of culture, intellectualism, and society
-Rene Descartes, "I think, therefore, I am."

The First Great Awakening

1720 - 1740

-A series of emotional religious revivals that occurred throughout the colonies (prevalent in New England)
-Spread message of personal repentance and emphasized faith as a way to avoid hell
-Suggested an equality between God and the Bible
-Helped build connections between colonies
-More denominations of Christianity were formed
-A number of colleges including Princetown, Brown, and Rutgers

Townshend Acts

1767

-Created by British PM Charles Townshend
-Formed a program of taxing items imported into the colonies such as paper, lead, glass, and tea
-Replaced the direct taxes of the Stamp Act
-Led to boycotts by Boston merchants and served as key contributor to the Boston Massacre

Boston Massacre

March 5 1770

-Occurred when the British attempted to enforce the Townshend Acts
-British soldiers killed five Bostonians
-John Adams provided the legal defense for the soldiers
-Though the British soldiers acts more or less in self-defense, anti-Royal leaders used the massacre to spur action in colonies

Boston Tea Party

December 1773

-Led to the Boston Tea Party in December of 1773, where citizens, dressed as Native Americas, destroyed tea on the British ships

First Continental Congress

Sept. 1774 - Oct. 1774

-Meeting in Philadelphia of colonial representatives to denounce the Intolerable Acts and to petition the British Parliament
-A few radical members discussed breaking from England
-Created Continental Association and forbade the importation and use of British goods
-Agreed to reconvene in May 1775

The Second Continental Congress

May 1775

-Colonial representative meeting in Philadelphia, which John Hancock presided
-Group split into Declaring Independence v. Under Britain Power
-Congress sent George Washington to command army around Boston
-American ports were opened in defiance of the Navigation Acts
-Congress wrote the Declaration of Indepedence

Common Sense

January 1776

-Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine that called for immediate independence from Britain
-It was sold throughout the colonies, where it gained popularity
-Common Sense helped weaken resistance in the Continental Congress toward independence

Western Land Cessions

1781 - 1787

-The original thirteen states ceded their western land claims to the new federal government
-The states that lacked western land claims feared that states with claims could grow in size, skewing representation in the federal government
-Before signing the US Constitution, these states demanded that those with claims cede the land
-The policy strengthened the ties of the western farmers to the central government

Land Ordinance of 1785

May 1785

-Congress sold western lands in order to settle that territory to earn revenue for the federal government
-Organized the distribution of land into townships and set aside a section of each township to be used for public education

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

July 13 1787 - March 1 1803

Ohio, more commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 13, 1787, until March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio. Previously, it was part of the British Province of Quebec, and a territory under British rule set aside in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 for use by American Indians, which was assigned to the United States in the Treaty of Paris (1783)

The Power of Sympathy

1789

-The first American novel by William Hill Brown

Departments of Treasury, State, and War created

1789

Along with the Secretary of State, Secretary of War, Secretary of the Treasury and the Attorney General, these men became known as the Cabinet. The President would consult them weekly, which is a custom that has continued.

Invention of the Cotton Gin

March 14 1794

The cotton gin is a machine designed to remove cotton from its seeds. The process uses a small screen and pulling hooks to force the cotton through the screen. It was invented by Eli Whitney on March 14, 1794, one of the many inventions that occurred during the American Industrial Revolution. However, earlier versions of the cotton gin had existed since the first century. It was improved over time from a single roller design to a double roller machine.

Revolution of 1800

1800

An election that quietly handed the reins of the government from the Federalists to the Republicans. The election also demonstrated the need for a better way to elect the president and vice president.

Louisiana Purchase

1803

The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition by the United States of America in 1803 of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km2) of France's claim to the territory of Louisiana. The U.S. paid 50 million francs ($11,250,000) plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs ($3,750,000), for a total sum of 15 million dollars (less than 3 cents per acre) for the Louisiana territory ($230 million in 2012 dollars, less than 42 cents per acre)

Lewis and Clark Expedition

May 14 1804 - September 23 1806

Hartford Convention

1814 - 1815

Construction of Erie Canal

July 4 1817 - May 17 1821

It was the first transportation system between the eastern seaboard (New York City) and the western interior (Great Lakes) of the United States that did not require portage, was faster than carts pulled by draft animals, and cut transport costs by about 95%. The canal fostered a population surge in western New York State, opened regions farther west to settlement, and helped New York City become the chief U.S. port. It was enlarged between 1834 and 1862. In 1918, the enlarged canal was replaced by the larger New York State Barge Canal.

Industrial Revolution

1820 - 1870

The Industrial Revolution (1820-1870) was of great importance to the economic development of the United States. The first Industrial Revolution occurred in Great Britain and Europe during the late eighteenth century. The Industrial Revolution then centered on the United States and Germany.

The Industrial Revolution itself refers to a change from hand and home production to machine and factory. The first industrial revolution was important for the inventions of spinning and weaving machines operated by water power which was eventually replaced by steam. This helped increase America’s growth. However, the industrial revolution truly changed American society and economy into a modern urban-industrial state.

Utopian Communities

1820 - 1850

-Attempt by cooperative communities to improve life in the face of increasing industrialism
-Practiced social experiments that generally saw little success due to their radicalism
-Included attempts at sexual equality, racial equality, and socialism
-Brook Farm and Oneida

Panic of 1837

1837 - 1844

The Panic of 1837 was a financial crisis in the United States that touched off a major recession that lasted until the mid-1840s.The years 1837 to 1844 were, generally speaking, years of deflation in wages and prices

Invention of the Telegraph

1837

Samuel Morse

Commonwealth v. Hunt

March 1842

Commonwealth v. Hunt, 45 Mass. 111 (1842) was a landmark legal decision issued by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court on the subject of labor unions. Prior to Hunt the legality of labor combinations in America was uncertain. In March 1842, Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw ruled that labor combinations were legal provided that they were organized for a legal purpose and used legal means to achieve their goals.

California

1848

California is won from Mexico

Election of 1860

Nov 6 1860

-Abraham Lincoln won the Northern and Midwestern states
-AL did not win majority of popular vote, less than half of the electoral vote, electoral vote of Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, and Tennessee
-served as the immediate reason for the outbreak of the Civil War

The Knights of Labor

1869 - 1949

-largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s
-social and cultural uplift of the workingman
-rejected Socialism and radicalism
-demanded the eight-hour day
-promoted the producers ethic of republicanism.

Cross of Gold Speech

1896

-William Jennings Bryan during national convention of the Democratic Party
-Criticized the gold standard and supported the coinage of silver
-"You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."

Muckrakers

1900 - 1912

-American journalists, novelists, and critics who exposed corruption, especially in business and politics
-Name given by President Theodore
-Upton Sinclair, Ida Tarbell, Lincoln Steffens, Frank Norris, and Samuel Hopkins Adams
-Increased support for the progressive movement

Teapot Dome Scandal

1921

-Bribery scandal involving President Harding's Secretary of the Interior Albert Fall
-Fall secured naval oil reserves in his jurisdiction
-He leased reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, to two major business owners in exchange for cash payouts
-Businessmen were acquitted, but Fall was imprisioned

Five Power Treaty

1922

-Committed the US, Britain, France, Japan, and Italy to restricting construction of battleship class ships
-Pact gave Japan naval supremacy in the Pacific

Stimson Doctrine

1931

-named after creator Henry L Stimson, Secretary of State during Hoover administration
-non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force.
-usually involves treaty violation
ex). Japan seizure of Manchuria, Soviet annexation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

Bureau of Indian Affairs

1934

-Led by commissioner John Collier
-Returned ownership of certain lands to tribes, established tribal governments, and proved economic relief
-Created a program of work projects for reservations

Manhattan Project

1942 - 1946

-Led under Major General Leslie Groves of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer
-Leading scientist: J. Robert Oppenheimer
-Took place and experimented in Los Alamos, New Mexico
-Used on Nagasaki and Hiroshima

Suez Canal Crisis

Oct 29 1956 - Nov 7 1956

United States sided with the USSR

Women's Liberation Movement

1960

-Movement questioned "traditional" definitions of women's roles
-increased opportunities for women in work, education, and business
-Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination by employers on the basis of gender

Amendments, Bills, Laws, Treaties

Treaty of Tordesillas

1493

-Commitment between Spain and Portugal
-Created a Papal Line of Demarcation, which divided the New World; east for Portugal, west for Spain
-Portugal also received the easternmost part of Brazil
-The Papal Line affected colonization in Africa and Asia

House of Burgess

1619

-Representative assembly in Virginia
-Election to seat was limited to voting members of the charter colony (all free men -->men with fifty acres to vote)
-First representative house in America
-Instituted the private ownership of land but maintained the rights of colonists

The Carolinas

1663

Land grant from Charles Ii to eight proprietors
Trade, farming, religious freedom
Rice and indigo cultivation; need for large numbers of laborers leads to African enslavement

The Zenger Trial

1735

-John Peter Zenger: German American newspaper publisher and printer
-His acquittal of libel charges in New York City established a legal precedent for freedom of the press

Negro Act of 1740

1740

The comprehensive Negro Act of 1740 passed in South Carolina made it illegal for slaves to move abroad, assemble in groups, raise food, earn money, and learn to write English (though reading was not proscribed). Additionally, owners were permitted to kill rebellious slaves if necessary.

Albany Plan

1748 - 1763

-Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for collective defense
-Penn. delegate, B. Franklin, suggested a plan for an inter-colonial government, which was rejected by legislatures as demanding too great a surrender of power
-An important precedent for the concept of uniting in the face of a common enemy

Writs of Assistance

1750 - 1770

-Court orders that authorized customs officials to conduct non-specific searches to stop colonial smuggling
-Allowed for searching of homes, warehouses, and shops
-Later, the Fourth Amendment would protect citizens against "unreasonable searches and seizures"

Proclamation of 1763

October 1763

-Result of Pontiac's Rebellion
-Forbade white settlement west of the Appalachians
-Stated that the Native Americans owned the land on which they were residing
-Outraged colonists believed that the successful outcome of the French and Indian War should have allowed settlement in the Ohio Valley

Quartering Act

1765

-Act that required the colonies in which British troops were stationed to provide soldiers with bedding and other basic needs
-Colonists reacted negatively to both the standing army and additional expenses
-Later, the Third Amendment protected citizens against stationing troops in their homes

Stamp Act Congress

1765

-Delegates of seven colonies met in New York to discuss plans for defense
-Adopted the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, which states that freeborn Englishmen could not be taxed without their consent

Virtual Representation

1770

-English principle stating that the members of parliament represented all of Britain and the British Empire, even though members were only elected by a small number of constituents
-Response to colonial claim of 'no taxation without representation', so parliament was itself a representation of those taxed

Lee's Resolution

1776

-Presented to Second Continental Congress by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
-Urged Congress to declare independence and were accepted July 2, 1776
-Said, "That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states.

Articles of Confederation

July 1776 - 1781

-Submitted 1776; ratified 1781
-Framework for an American national government in which states were given the most power
-Permitted the federal government to make war, offer treaties, and create new states
-There was no federal power to levy taxes, raise troops, or regulate commerce
-Congressional revision of the articles created a weak national government

Declaration of Independence

July 4 1776

-Document restating political ideas justifying the separation from Britain
-Thomas Jefferson and his committee had the duty of drafting for the Continental Congress
-John Locke's influences served as a foundation for the document
-The final product lacked provisions condemning the British slave trade and a denunciation of the British people that earlier drafts had contained

Treaty of Paris, 1783

1783

-Ended Seven Years War
-Britain took Canada and parts of the US east of the Mississippi River
-France lost all of its North American holdings
-Spain took the Louisiana Territory
-Treaty marked the end of salutary neglect, a relationship in which the British Parliament had somewhat ignored the colonies, allowing them to develop their character without interference

Virginia Plan and New Jersey Plan

May 29 1787 - June 15 1787

-V.P.: Presented by Edmund Randolph and written by James Madison, it called for a bicameral legislature based on a state's population, and it suggested that both the chief executive and judiciary should be chosen by legislature
-New Jersey Plan: Presented y William Patterson, it called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation for each state
-They formed the basis of the modern American legislative sturcture

Great Compromise

July 1787

-a.k.a. Connecticut Compromise, a.k.a. Sherman's Plan
-Called for a bicameral legislative system in which the House of Representatives would be based on population and the Senate would have equal representation in Congress
-Combined pieces of the New Jersey Plan, the Virginia Plan and other proposals
-Included the three-Fifths Compromise, which counted slaves as three-fifths of a person for purposes of apportioning representatives and called for direct taxation on the states

The Constitution of the United States

September 17 1787 - June 21 1788

-Drafted at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787
-Included a preamble and seven articles
-Created a stronger federal government
-The Bill of Rights constitutes the first ten amendments, and it protects individual rights and freedoms

Anti-Federalists

1788 - 1792

-Those against the adoption of the Constitution; they were suspicious of political actions that would limit freedom and of a centralized government that would rule at a distance
-George Mason, Patrick Henry, and George Clinton were Anti-Federalists
-Many of the Anti-Federalists would come to oppose the policies of Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists
-The Jeffersonian Republican Party absorbed many of the Anti-Federalists after the Constitution was adopted

Federalists

1788

-Americans who advocated centralized power and constitutional ratification
-Used The Federalists Papers to demonstrate how the Constitution was designed to prevent the abuse of power
-Supporters of Federalists platforms included Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, and northeastern business groups
-Federalists believed that the government was given all powers that were not expressly denied to it by the Constitution (they had a "loose interpretation" of the Constitution)
-supported by wealthy merchants

Judiciary Act of 1789

1789

Established the federal court system. It created the positions of Chief Justice and five Associate Justices for a national Supreme Court and thirteen distract courts and three circuit courts. It also gave Supreme Court the power enabling the Court to declare void any state laws and any decisions of state courts that the Court held to violate the US Constitution or federal laws and treaties under the Constitution.

1st Amendments

September 25 1789 - December 15 1791

Protects freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and freedom of press, as well as the right to assemble and petition the government

Elastic Clause and the Tenth Amendment

1791

-Tenth Amendment restricts the federal government to those powers delegated to it by the Constitution and gives all other powers to the states, or the people
-Article I, Section 8 grants the federal government the power to make all laws
-The conflict between these two ideas is the determination of which group, the federal government or the states and their people, has the right to exercise powers that have been expressly delegated to the central government

Jeffersonian Republicans

1792 - 1860

-Democratic-Republicans
-Political party that absorbed the Anti-Federalists
-Favored states' rights and power in the hands of commoners; supported by Southern agriculture and frontiersmen
-Believed that the federal government was denied all powers that were not expressly given to it by the Constitution (a "strict interpretation" of the document)
-Supported the French Revolution's ideals, but they were against the Revolution's bloody radicalism

Neutrality Act

1793

This was in response to the new European conflicts. It was created because Washington was concerned that the nation was too weak to defend itself and too dependent on British trade to enter war on the side of the French against the British.

Jay's Treaty

1794

The treaty solved remaining issues with the British after the war. The British agreed to leave the frontier in 1796 and to grant the United States trading rights with British islands in the Caribbean. The Treaty was ratified despite opposition from Republicans who wanted to honor the alliance of 1778 with the French and who saw the treaty as an attempt by the Federalists to increase trade with Great Britain.

Pinckney Treaty

1795

-Signed by the United States and Spain
-Could land goods at New Orleans and ship them out w/o paying taxes
-Free navigation of the Mississippi River was given to the US
-US gained area north of Florida that had been in dispute
-Gave western farmers the "rights of deposit" in New Orleans, enabling them to use the port for their goods and making it easier for them to get their goods to the east
-The US would later make the Louisiana Purchase, which would cement this right of deposit

Virginia and Kentucky Resolution

1798

Jefferson believed that the states had the right to declare laws of the federal government unconstitutional and urged the states to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts. James Madison wrote the Kentucky Resolution, which declared the laws unconstitutional.

Alien, Naturalization, and Sedition Act

1798

The Alien Act gave the president the power to expel any alien believed to be dangerous to the nation. The Naturalization Act extended from five to fourteen years the time an alien had to live in the United States before being eligible for citizenship. The Sedition Act made it a crime to oppose the laws or make false or critical statements about the government or any officials. The first two were for the French immigrants who supported the Republicans. The last law affected a number of Republicans.

XYZ Affair/ Quasi-War

1798 - 1800

In retaliation of the Jay's Treaty, the French were seizing US ships in the Caribbean. Adams sent a diplomatic party to negotiate. The French sent three agents who demanded money. The sea war that resulted voided the alliance of 1778. It led to the creation of the American Navy. The Republicans' support for the French severely damaged the party.

Twelfth Amendment

June 15 1804

Because the 1800 election took seven days and thirty six ballots in the House of Representatives to break the tie and select president and vice president. The Twelfth Amendment was ratified to change the process so that candidates could clearly list which position they wanted.

Embargo Act of 1807

December 22 1807 - March 1 1809

Non-Intercourse Act (1809)

March 1809

Macon's Bill Number 2

May 14 1810

Treaty of Ghent

December 24 1814 - February 18 1815

It was negotiated by December. It took a few months for both countries to ratify it.

Tariff of 1816, "Dallas Tariff"

April 27 1816

The Tariff of 1816 (also known as the Dallas tariff) is notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from foreign competition. Prior to the War of 1812, tariffs had primarily served to raise revenues to operate the national government. Another unique aspect of the tariff was the strong support it received from Southern states

Treaty of 1818

1818

The Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in 1818 between the United States and the United Kingdom. It resolved standing boundary issues between the two nations, and allowed for joint occupation and settlement of the Oregon Country, known to the British and in Canadian history as the Columbia District of the Hudson's Bay Company, and including the southern portion of its sister for district New Caledonia.

Rush-Bagot Treaty, "Rush-Bagot Disarmament"

April 16 1818

The treaty provided for a large demilitarization of lakes along the international boundary, where many British naval arrangements and forts remained. The treaty stipulated that the United States and British North America could each maintain one military vessel (no more than 100 tons burden) as well as one cannon (no more than eighteen pounds) on Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain. The remaining Great Lakes permitted the United States and British North America to keep two military vessels "of like burden" on the waters armed with "like force". The treaty, and the separate Treaty of 1818, laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the U.S. and British North America.

Adams-Onís Treaty

1819

Also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or the Purchase of Florida,[2] or the Florida Treaty,[3] was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain (now Mexico). It settled a standing border dispute between the two countries and was considered a triumph of American diplomacy. It came in the midst of increasing tensions related to Spain's territorial boundaries in North America vs. the United States and United Kingdom in the aftermath of the American Revolution; and also, during a period of weakening in Spanish power.
In addition to ceding Florida to the United States, the treaty settled (as between Spain and the national Government of the US) a boundary dispute along the Sabine River in Texas; it firmly established the boundary of U.S. territory and claims through the Rocky Mountains and west to the Pacific Ocean, in exchange for the U.S. paying residents' claims against the Spanish government up to a total of $5,000,000 and relinquishing the US claims on parts of Spanish Texas west of the Sabine River and other Spanish areas, under the terms of the Louisiana Purchase.

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819

Principle of implied power

Missouri Compromise

1820

The Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress, involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories. It prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri
-Missouri slave state
-Maine free state
-prohibit slavery north of latitude 36'30
-maintain the balance of slaves and free states

Monroe Doctrine

December 2 1823

It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression, requiring U.S. intervention.[1] At the same time, the Doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The Doctrine was issued at a time when nearly all Latin American colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved independence from the Spanish Empire (except Cuba and Puerto Rico) and the Portuguese Empire. The United States, working in agreement with Britain, wanted to guarantee no European power would move in.

Compromise of 1850

September 1850

-New fugitive slave law, declared that all runaway slaves were, upon capture, to be returned to their masters
-Texas surrendered claim to New Mexico
-California admitted as state

Sherman Anti-trust Act

1890 - 1895

Teller Amendment

1898

-Promised that when the US overthrew Spanish rule in Cuba, the US would give Cubans their independence
-After Spanish-American War, Platt Amendment overrode the Teller Amendment, and Cuba came under the control of the United States

Open Door Policy

1898

-US foreign policy for its dealings with China
-Served as a guiding principle for US foreign affairs in China through the early 1900s
-US had become a major commercial power in Asia after acquiring the Philippine Islands
-Europe and Japan made moves to take over portions of China, threatening US interests there
-Hay announced agreement by all parties in July 1900

Insular Cases

1901 - 1904

-Series of court cases held to determine if the "Constitution followed the flag"
-At stake was whether people in areas controlled by the United States were given rights as citizens
-Court determined that those living in new territories were not automatically granted the rights of United States citizens

Platt Amendment

1901

-Rider attached to Army appropriations bill
-Allowed the US to protect its own interests
-US kept land for naval bases on Cuba; Guantanamo Bay would play a part in later Cuba-US conflicts

Muller v. Oregon

1908

-Oregon established a law that limited women to ten hours of work in factories and laundries
-Muller, a laundry owner, challenged the legality of the law, arguing that it violated the "liberty to contract"
-The Supreme Court held that the law was constiutional

Versailles Treaty

1919

-Woodrow Wilson failed to obtain ratification of the Versailles Treaty because he was unwilling to make any compromises with Henry Cabot Lodge, ineffectiveness of the resolutions; permanent alliances with other nations.
-US does not join the League of Nations

Emergency Quota Act

1921

-One of the series of acts by Congress that limited immigration
-Immigration was limited by nationality to three percent of the number of foreign-born persons from that nation living in the US in 1910
-Designation restricted only certain nationalities and religious groups
-Targeted Italians, Greeks, Poles, and Eastern European Jews

Fordney-McCumber Tariff

1922

-Increased tariff schedules
-Tariffs were raised on farm produce to equalize American and foreign production
-Gave the president the power to reduce or increase tariffs by fifty percent based on advice from the Tariff Commission
-Connected to American feelings toward isolationsim

Creationism and the Scopes Trial

1925

-Fundamentalist Protestants supported Creationism as a way to prohibit the teaching of evolution in schools
-They hoped to protect belief in the literal understanding of the Bible
-John Scopes, a young biology teacher, broke the law by teaching Darwinism and served as a test case for the ACLU
-Clarence Darrow defended Scopes, and William Jennings Bryan defended the State of Tennessee
-Some states passed anti-evolution laws
-Scopes was convicted

Kellogg-Briand Pact

1928

-AKA Pact of Paris
-Fifteen-nation pact agreed that all conflicts should be settled by peaceful means and that war was to be renounced
-US Congress demanded a right of self defense and that America should not have to act against countries that broke the treaty
-Pact lacked effectiveness as it failed to provide enforcement measures

First New deal Programs

1933

-Civilian Conservation Corp
-National Industrial Recovery Act
-Public Works Administration
-Agricultural Adjustment Act
Consequences:
-Inconsistent
-Creating a large federal bureaucracy without a central control
-Set up public works to help the unemployed and provided direct relief to the unemployed and provided direct relief to the unemployed

-Greater economic security than they had known before

Indian Reorganization Act

1934

-Reversed the Dawes Severalty Act
-Attempted to restore the tribal basis of Native American life
-Tribal life was to be recognized as "normal

Wagner Act of 1935

1935

-also known as the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (29 U.S.C.A. § 151 et seq.), is the most important piece of labor legislation enacted in U.S. history.
-made the federal government the arbiter of employer-employee relations through the creation of the national labor relations board (NLRB) and recognized for the first time the right of workers to organize and bargain collectively with their employers.
-overturned decades of court decisions that asserted that labor unions violated an employee's liberty of contract.

Neutrality Act of 1939

1939

-sell non-military and military goods for cash to belligerent nations if transported on another nation's ship

Gideon V. Wainwright

1963

-Supreme Court held that all persons charged with a felony must be provided legal counsel

Escobedo v. Illinois

1964

-Supreme Court found that the police must honor a person's request to have an attorney present during interrogation

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

-Passed by Lyndon Johnson
-Prohibited discrimination in places of public accommodations
-Required the federal government to withdraw support from any state or program that discriminated
-Established the Equal Employment Commission to oversee hiring practices

Heart of Atlanta Motel v U.S.

1964

-Motel operator refused to serve an African American customer
-Supreme Court upheld the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965

-Signed into law by Lyndon Johnson
-Voters could no longer be forced to take literacy tests

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

-Supreme Court determined that an arrested person had the right to remain silent, the right to be told tat whatever he could be used against him, the right to be represented by an attorney, the right to have a lawyer even if he could not afford one, and the right to one phone call to obtain a lawyer

Wars/Rebellions

Spanish Armada

1588

-Fleet assembled by King Phillip II of Spain to invade England
-The Armada was defeated by the skill of British military leaders and by rough seas during the assault
-England's victory over Spanish forces was one of the great achievements of Queen Elizabeth I, as it established England as an emerging sea power
-Its defeat helped bring about the decline of the Spanish empire

English Civil War

1641 - 1651

-Conflict between King Charles I and the English Parliament
-Divine Right v. Membership had Rights Sepearte from King
-Parliament was made up mostly of Puritans who had the backing of merchant class and lesser land owners
-Charles had the backing of wealthy nobles
-Led to outright conflict between Royalist military forces and forces opposing Charles I
-Parliament won in 1651 and executed Charles I
-The English monarchy was replaced with the Commonwealth of England (1649-1653) and then with a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell's rule (1653-1659)

Bacon's Rebellion

1676

-Virginia's Royal governor, William Berkeley, received strict instructions to run the colony for the benefit of Britain
-Nathaniel Bacon was a leader of colonial frontiersmen in Virginia
-Bacon objected to the rights granted to Virginia;s wealthy inner circle and was angered by Governors Berkeley's inability to protect Virginia from attacks by the Native Americans
-Bacon commanded two unauthorized raids on Native American tribes, increasing his popularity; Berkeley had him arrested
-Soon after, Bacon gathered his forces, opposed the Royal governor, and set fire to Jamestown to defend his forces' position
-Berkeley ended the rebellion with the aid of British military forces
-After Bacon's rebellion, American colonies turned increasingly away from indentured servants and toward slave labor

Stono Rebellion, "Cato's Rebellion"

September 9 1739

The Stono Rebellion (sometimes called Cato's Conspiracy or Cato's Rebellion) was a slave rebellion that commenced on 9 September 1739, in the colony of South Carolina. It was the largest slave uprising in the British mainland colonies prior to the American Revolution

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

Sixty Years' War

1754 - 1814

Several military struggles for control of the Great Lakes region in North America.

Pontiac's War, "Pontiac's Rebellion"

1763 - 1766

Lord Dunmore's War

1774

Western Theater of the American Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

Battles of Concord and Lexington

April 1775

-Concord: Site suspected by British General Gage of housing a stockpile of colonial weaponry
-Paul Revere, William Dawes and others detected movement of British troops toward Concord and warned militia and gathered Minutemen at Lexington
-Lexington: Militia and Royal infantry fought, and the colonial troops withdrew

Battle of Bunker Hill

June 17 1775

-Bunker Hill was an American port overlooking Boston
-The stronghold contained General Gage and his troops
-The colonists twice turned back a British frontal assault and generally held the fort until the other side ran out of ammunition and was overrun
-The event strengthened morale

Battle of Saratoga

1777

-American Revolution battle fought in New York
-The British planned to end the American Revolution by splitting the colonies along the Hudson River, but they failed to mobilize properly
-The British ended up surrounding, which counted as the first great American victory
-Showed that the British could easily hold the cities, but cannot and has trouble subduing the countrysides
-Considered a turning point, as French aid began after this battle

Northwest Indian War, "Little Turtle's War"

1785 - 1795

Shay's Rebellion

1786 - 1787

-During a period of economic depression, Daniel Shays led a group of farmers to stop the courts from seizing a farmer's land and enacting debt collection
-Citizens of Boston raised an army and suppressed the rebels
-Americans felt pressure to strengthen the government and avoid future violence
-The rebellion served as a catalyst for writing the Constitution

Whiskey Rebellion

1794

-Western whiskey farmers refused to pay taxes on which Hamilton's revenue program was based
-A group of farmers terrorized the tax collectors, and Washington responded with a federalized militia
-George Washington and Alexander Hamilton rode out to Pennsylvania themselves to emphasize their commitment
-First test of federal authority
-Established federal government's right to enforce laws

Gabriel Prosser's Conspiracy

1800

Gabriel Prosser, was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly, and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions.

Cheasapeake-Leopard Affair

June 22 1807

Tecumseh's War, "Tecumseh's Rebellion"

1811 - 1813

Battle of Tippecanoe

November 7 1811

War of 1812, "Mr. Madison's War"

June 18 1812 - February 18 1815

Battle of Lake Erie

September 10 1813

Oliver Hazard Perry, we have met the enemy and they are ours

Battle of Thames

October 5 1813

It was a decisive US victory over Great Britain during the War of 1812. It took place on present day Chatham Ontario, Upper Canada. It resulted in the death of Shawnee chief Tecumseh and the destruction of the Native American coalition he created and led.

First Seminole War

1814 - 1819

Battle of Plattsburgh, "Battle of Lake Champlain"

September 6 1814 - September 11 1814

Battle of New Orleans

January 8 1815

Denmark Vesey's Conspiracy

1822

After purchasing his freedom, he is believed to have planned a slave rebellion. Word of the plans was leaked, and authorities arrested the plot's leaders at Charleston, South Carolina, before the uprising could begin. Vesey and others were convicted and executed

Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion

August 21 1831 - August 22 1831

Nat Turner's Rebellion (also known as the Southampton Insurrection) was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia, during August 1831.[1] Led by Nat Turner, rebel slaves killed anywhere from 55 to 65 white people, the highest number of fatalities caused by any slave uprising in the South. The rebellion was put down within a few days, but Turner survived in hiding for more than two months afterwards.

Second Seminole War

1835 - 1842

Third Seminole War

1855 - 1858

American Civil War

April 12 1861 - May 10 1865

-Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant at Appomattox

Spanish-American War

1898

-Cuba resented Spain's control, which led to rebellion
-Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler, labeled "Butcher Weyler" by the US, who confined civilians to brutal camps
-US sent battleship Maine to Havana; the Maine was blown up
-American fought Spain in the Philippines and in Cuba
-Treaty of Cuba gave Cuba its independence; US gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines while Spain received $20 million from the United States for the Philippines
-Resulted in guerrilla war between Americans and Filipinos

Puerto Rico and the United States

1900

-1900: Foraker Act gave Puerto Rico limited popular government
-1917: American citizenship granted to Puerto Ricans

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

1964

-North Vietnamese supposedly fired on American ships in the Gulf of Tonkin
-Congress passed a resolution to allow President to use military action in Vietnam
-Retaliated against Viet Cong with bombing attacks in the North followed by ground troops

Economy

Mercantilism

1500 - 1700

-Prevailing economic philosophy of the 1600s that held that colonies existed to serve the mother country
-Founded on the belief that the worlds wealth was sharply limited and, therefore, one nation's gain was another nation's loss
-Each nation's goal was to export more than it imported in a favorable balance of trade; the difference would be made up in their possession of gold and silver, which would make the nation strong both economically and militarily
-Mercantilists believed economic activity should be regulated by the government

Joint-Stock Company

1600

-A type of business structure used by some colonial explorers to raise money for their expeditions
-These private trading companies sold shares to investors who provided start-up funding
-In return for taking on the risk of the investment, investors were paid based on the profits
-Many modern business structures are founded on principles of the joint-stock company

Indentured Servitude

1600 - 1670

-People who received immigration passage and fees in return for a number of years at labor on behalf of a planter or company
-Servants entered into their contracts voluntarily and kept some legal rights
-However, they had little control over the control over the conditions of their work and living arrangements, and the system led to harsh and brutal treatment
-It remained the predominant system of labor until the 1670s; Bacon's Rebellion made it risky and so they switched to slave labor instead

Headright System

1618

-System used by the Virginia Company to attract colonists
-Promised them fifty acres of land to immigrate to America
-Also gave fifty acres for each servant that a colonist brought
-Solidified the use of indentured servitude for time being

Dutch West India Company

1621 - 1674

-The joint-stock company that ran the colonies in Fort Orange and New Amsterdam, which later became New York
-Carried on a profitable fur trade with the Native American Iroquois
-Instituted the patroon system, in which large estates were given to wealthy men who transported at least fifty families to New Netherland to tend the land (few seized the opportunity)

Navigation Acts

1650 - 1673

-Dictated that certain goods shipped from a New World port were to go only to Britain or to another New World port
-Served as the foundation of England's worldwide commercial system; came out of economic philosophy of mercantilism
-Though it was meant to benefit the whole British Empire, its provisions helped some New World colonies at the expense of others
-Intended as a weapon in England's ongoing struggle against its rival, Holland
-Led to increased tension between Britain and the colonies

Results
-Boosted the prosperity of New Englanders, who engaged in large-scaled shipbuilding
-Hurt the residents of the Chesapeake by driving down the price of tobacco
-Transferred wealth from America to Britain by increasing the prices Americans had to pay for British goods and lowering the prices Americans received for the goods they produced
-Mercantilism also helped bring on a series of wars between England and Holland in the late 1600s

Sugar Act

1764

-Taxed goods imported to America to raise revenue for England
-Meant to assist in recouping debt taken during French and Indian War
-Strictly enforced
-Taxed goods such as wine, cloth, coffee and silk

Stamp Act

1765

-An internal tax, the sole purpose of which was to raise revenue
-Required Americans to use "stamped" paper for legal documents, newspapers, playing cards, etc.
-Revenue collected was used to support the British soldiers protecting the colonies

Declaratory

1766

-Act giving Britain the power to tax and make laws for Americans in all cases
-Followed repeal of the Stamp Act
-The Declaratory Act suggested that Britain might pass more restrictive acts in the near future

Tea Act

1773

-Tea Act was a concession that allowed the British East India Company to ship tea directly to America and sell it at a bargain
-Because the cheap tea undercut the costs of local merchants, colonists opposed these shipments; they turned back ships, left shipments to rot, and help ships in port

The Intolerable Acts

1774

-a.k.a The Coercive Act, a.k.a Quebec Act
-Series of acts by the British in response to the Boston Tea Party
-Closed the Port of Boston to all trade until citizens paid for the lost tea
-Increased the power of Massachusetts' Royal governor at the expesne of the legislature
-Allowed Royal officials accused of crimes in Massachusetts to be tried elsewhere

Second Bank of the United States

February 1817 - January 1836

Functions:
-Receiving and paying out federal funds
-stabilizing the money supply
-keeping a check on the loans of other banks
-making loans to the federal government

Reconstruction Era

January 1, 1863 - March 31, 1877

-Characterized by limited military occupation of the South
-Northerners who took advantage were called carpetbaggers

Dawes Plan

1924

-Debt restructuring plan for Germany after World War I
-American banks made loans to Germany, Germany paid reparations to Allies, and Allies paid back the US government
-Cycle based on loans from American banks
-Plan would play a part in the development of the Great Depression

Stock Market Crash of 1929

October 1929

-Investors began to panic during late October 1929
-October 24, 1929, AKA Black Thursday, the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped fifty percent
-October 29, 1929 (Black Tuesday) over sixteen million shares of stock were traded
-Crash led to the Great Depression

Second New Deal

1935 - 1941

-Like the first New Deal, it offered sweeping economic changes to aid in relief and recovery
-Pushed programs to aid particular groups, such as labor organizations
-Tax structure was finessed through various revenue acts
-Some New Deal acts were declared unconstitutional in 1935

People

Christopher Columbus

1451 - 1506

-Italian navigator who found fame when he landed in the Americas (Oct. 12, 1492)
-Set sail on behalf of Spain with three ships
-Returned from expedition with gold

Amerigo Vespucci

1454 - 1512

-Italian member of Portuguese expedition
-Explored South America
-Discovery suggested that the expedition had found a "New World"

Queen Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

-Protestant successor to Queen Mary (England)
-Popular leader and the first woman to successfully hold the throne
-Invested in English raids on the Spanish New World; Spanish responded with the Spanish Armada
-Established Protestantism in England and encouraged English business

John Rolfe

1585 - 1622

-English colonists in Jamestown, Virginia
-Married Pocahontas
-Created process for curing tobacco, ensuring economic success for Jamestown

Sir Walter Raleigh

1587

-Selected Roanoke Island as a site for the first English settlement
-Returned to England to secure additional supplies, but he found the colony deserted upon his return; it is not known what became of the Roanoke settlers
-Raleigh abandoned his attempts to colonize Virginia after the failure at Roanoke
-Held back by lack of financial resources and war with Spain, English colonization in America was impeded for fifteen years

Roger Williams

1603 - 1683

-A Puritan preacher who fled Massachusetts after his views on religious observance became too extreme for the colonists
-He bought land from the Native Americans and founded Providence in 1636, and it was soon populated by his many followers
-The colony granted complete religious toleration
-It suffered constant political turmoil

John Locke

1632 - 1704

-Locke was a major English political philosopher of the Enlightenment
-Isaac Newton theorized Natural Law in the realm of science, and Locke followed him, trying to identify Natural Law in the human realm
-Prior to Locke, there existed a theory of social contract in which people would accept certain restrictions on themselves for the benefit of their society, and these restrictions would be upheld by a sovereign power
-Locke's assertion of Natural Law changed from the perspective of the social contract theory; he believed that if life, liberty and property were not protected, governments could be overthrown justly
-Locke's ideas became the indirect theory of American political activity for leaders such as B. Franklin, and influenced T. Jefferson in writing the Declaration of Independence

Anne Hutchinson

1638

-Claimed to have had special revelations from God that superseded the Bible, contrary to Puritan doctrine
-Was accused of antinomian (belief that salvation is attained through faith ad divine grace and not through strict adherence to rules or moral laws) teachings
-She was tried and banished from the Colony
-She founded the Portsmouth in the Aquidneck region (1638) in what is now known as Rhode Island

William Penn

1644 - 1718

-Founded Pennsylvania as a refuge for his fellow Quakers
-Penn advertised his colony widely in Europe and offered generous terms on land
-Guaranteed a representative assembly and full religious freedom
-Settlers flocked to Pennsylvania from all over Europe.

Quakers

1680

-Quakers believed human religious institutions were largely unnecessary
-Thought they could receive revelation directly from God and placed little importance on the Bible
-They were pacifists and declined to show deference to alleged social superiors
-Their actions in denouncing established institutions brought them trouble in both Britain and America
-Opposed slavery and favored decent treatment of Native America
-Helped shape the characterization of a US that valued independence and social equality

Johnathan Edwards

1703 - 1758

-Preacher of the Great Awakening who emphasized personal religious experience, predestination, and dependence of man upon God and divine grace
-One of his widely read sermons was "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

Benjamin Franklin

1706 - 1790

-Colonial writer, scientist, diplomat, printer, and philosopher
-Published the Pennsylvania Gazette and wrote Poor Richard's Almanac
-Served in the Second Continental Congress and was a drafter and signer of the Declaration of Independence

William Pitt

1708 - 1778

-Britain's capable and energetic prime minister
-He led Britain to virtually destroy the French empire in North America by focusing on the French headquarters in Canada

Samuel Adams

1722 - 1803

-Revolutionary resistance leader in Massachusetts
-Along with Paul Revere, he headed the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts
-Worked with the committees of correspondence
-Attended both the First and Second Continental Congress and signed the Declaration of Indepedence

Charles Cornwallis

1738 - 1805

-British military and political leader, member of Parliament
-Opposed the tax measures that led to the American Revolution
-Led British forces during the war
-The British defeat culminated with Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in 1781

John Jay

1745 - 1829

-Member of First and Second Continental Congress
-Negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty
-First Chief of Justice of Supreme Court
-Wrote portions of The Federalists Papers

Alexander Hamilton

1757 - 1804

-First Secretary of Treasury
-Proposed the federal assumption of state debts, the establishment of a national bank, and the federal stimulation of industry going through excise tax and tariffs
-Opponents, including Jefferson, saw his programs as aiding a small elite group at the expense of the average citizen
-Hamilton died from wounds sustained in a pistol duel with Aaron Burr, Jefferson's vice president

Eli Whitney

1765 - 1825

-Inventor and manufacturer
-Invented the cotton gin in 1793, revolutionizing the cotton industry and increasing the need for slaves
-Established first factory to assemble muskets with interchangeable standardized parts
-His innovations led to an "American system" of manufacture, where those laborers with less skill could use tools and templates to make identical parts; also, the manufacture and assembly of parts could be done separately

Stephen A. Douglas

April 23 1813 - June 3 1861

He was nicknamed the "Little Giant" because he was short in physical stature, but a forceful and dominant figure in politics.
Douglas was well known as a resourceful party leader, and an adroit, ready, skillful tactician in debate and passage of legislation. He was a champion of the Young America movement which sought to modernize politics and replace the agrarian and strict constructionist orthodoxies of the past.
-1858 Freeport, Illinois: slavery could be kept out of the territories if people in the territories failed to pass laws to protect it

Marcus Alonzo Hanna

1837 - 1904

-American capitalist dealing in coal, shipping, shipbuilding, banking, and newspapers
-Supported William McKinley
-Chairman of the Republican National Committee

Henry Ford

1863 - 1947

-His Model-T, introduced in 1908. was the first inexpensive, mass-produced automobile
-Use of the moving assembly line heavily influenced American manufacturing
-Strongly anti-union
-Paid workers $5/day, more than doubling the average autoworker's wage

Upton Sinclair

1878 - 1968

-Novelist and socialist
-Used his writings to expose issues in the US society, such as the need for food inspection laws, and the oppressive effect of capitalism on education and culture
-The Jungle (1906), graphic novel about the Chicago stockyards, led to food inspection reforms and the Meat Inspection Act of 1906
-Won Pulitzer Prize in 1942

Ashcan School (New York Realists)

1900 - 1930

-Group of artists who painted realistic scenes
-Focused on subjects of everyday life
-George Luks, George Bellows, John Sloan, Robert Henri, Everett Shinn, and Arthur B. Davies

Rachel Carson

1907 - 1964

-American writer and marine biologist
-Wrote Silent Spring (1962), a study on dangerous insecticides
-Helped initiate the environmental movement

William Howard Taft

1909 - 1913

-27th President
-Served as Secretary of War under Theodore Roosevelt
-Prosecuted trusts under the Sherman Antitrust Act
-"Dollar Diplomacy" policy called for acting in foreign affairs to achieve a financial result on behalf o one's country
-Created the Department of Labor and established the parcel-post system
-Became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court after serving as President

Marcus Garvey

1920

-Native of Jamaica
-Advocated African American racial pride and separatism rather than integration
-Pushed for a return to Africa

Ralph Nader

1934 - Present

-Political activist and advocate for consumers
-"Unsafe at Any Speed" shed light on poor safety standards for automobiles, leading Congress to pass auto safety measures

Lyndon Johnson

1963 - 1969

-36th President
-After JFK's assassination
-Democratic senator from Texas, where he was the whip and floor leader
-Promoted Kennedy's agenda through Congress, including a tax cut and the Civil Rights Act of 1964
-Elected in 1964
-Called for war against poverty and promoted social and economic welfare legislation (his Great Society program)

Betty Friedan

1963

-The Feminime Mystique: attacked the belief that a woman's sole satisfaction came through homemaking
-One of the founders of the NOW (National Organization of Women)

Jeane Kirkpatrick

1981 - 1985

-First woman to be US ambassador to UN
-Kirkpatrick Doctrine: The doctrine was used to justify the U.S. foreign policy of supporting Third World anti-communist dictatorships during the Cold War.

Sandra Day O'Conner

Sep 21 1981 - Jan 31 2006

-First woman Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
-Appointed by Ronald Reagan

Ann Richards

January 15, 1991 - January 17, 1995

-Second female governor of Texas
-noted for her outspoken feminism and her one-liners

Madeleine Albright

Jan 23 1997 - Jan 20 2001

-First woman to become US Secretary of State
-unanimously confirmed by US Senate