Unit 2

Medieval World I

Pope

384 AD

Recognized leader of the western Christian church
-considered (first bishop) Peter's successors
-"papa", or father, of Catholic church
-Pope Gregory I (590-694) created administrative unit of Rome and surrounding area: the Papal States
-played a prominent role in civilizing and converting Germanic Europe

Benedict

480 AD - 543 AD

Monk who established Benedictine Monasticism
-fundamental form of monastic life in the western Christian church
-ideals of moderation, poverty, chastity, and obedience
-division of day into activities including prayer and physical labor
-self sustaining communities

Germanic Law

500 AD - 750 AD

System in which law was personal rather than an offense against society or the state
-blood feuds in which family of the injured party takes revenge on the kin of the offender
-instituted Wergeld: "man money" --the value of a person in monetary terms; price could be paid by a wrongdoer to the family of the injured or killed
-compurgation: accused must be backed by 12 to 25 "oath helpers" to be believed
-ordeal: principle of divine intervention, divine forces would not allow an innocent person to be harmed

Byzantine Empire

500 AD - 1453 AD

The Eastern Roman Empire, centered on Constantinople
-both Greek and Christian state
-emperor was "chosen by God", his power absolute
-held together by spiritual values
-protected west from incursions by the east
-enormous amount of artistic talent poured into churches, church ceremonies and decoration

The Dark Ages

500 AD - 800 AD

Beginning period of the medieval period in Europe
-no central authority
-German law takes place of Roman law
-Limited economic activity, centered on agriculture
-limited intellectual activity: no philosophy
-cities abandoned, moved to countryside

Franks

510 AD - 750 AD

People of the German state (kingdom) established by Clovis
-land from the Pyrenees to German lands in the east
-decline in Roman standards of civilization
-warriors, did little to encourage urban life or trade
-Germanic concepts of kingship and customary law replaced Roman governmental structure

Justinian

527 AD - 565 AD

Emperor of eastern Roman Empire who reestablished the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean world
-codification of Roman law: Corpus Iurius Civilis
-simplified legal materials connected to development of Roman law
-became the basis of the legal system of all of continental Europe

Hilda of Whitby

614 - 680

Abbess (head of nunnery) who founded the monastery of Whitby
-gave learning an important role in the life of the monastery
-offered education opportunities for female intellectuals not found elsewhere

Charlemagne

768 - 814

Frankish King, head of Carolingian Empire
-greatly expanded the territory of the empire
-took up the cause of church reform
-coronated as Roman Emperor
-revival of classical studies and preservation of latin culture, mostly within monasteries
-scriptoria: writing rooms preserved ancient legacy (90 percent of ancient Roman works we have today)

Christendom

800 AD - 1500

The Christian World as a political reality in the medieval world
-Charlemagne is crowned Roman emperor by the pope, ushering in a sort of marriage between church and state
-papal power increases
-encompassed the Holy Roman Empire, as well as the various kingdoms of Germany, France, England, etc.
-hierarchy within Christendom was the basis of social systems

Islam and Crusades

Khadija

555 AD - 619 AD

Wife of Muhammad
-was a wealthy female merchant
-Muhammad worked as her bookkeeper
-though now Islam is criticized as being oppressive to women, Muslims point to Khadija as an example of a woman of power within their faith.
-Muhammad and Khadija were thought to have a very loving relationship

Muhammed

570 AD - 632 AD

Founder of Islam
-believed Allah was revealed in Moses and Jesus, but final revelations were given to him
-conquered and converted Mecca in 630 AD
-teachings resulted in religious and political unification of Arab society

Islam

610 AD

Religion founded by Muhammad, based on his teachings in the Qur'an
-emphasized the need to obey the will of Allah
-ethical code consisting of Five Pillars of Islam:
-belief in ALlah and Muhammad his Prophet
-prayer five times a day
-observance of Ramadan with fasting from dawn to sunset
-making a pilgrimage, hajj, to Mecca
-giving alms to the poor

Qu'ran

610 AD

Holy book of Islam, containing Muhammad's revelations
-recorded the beliefs of Muslims and served as their code of ethics and law
-there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet
-Five Pillars: confession of faith, prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, and charity

Crusades

1095 AD - 1291 AD

Religious military campaigns undertaken by western European Christians to take back the holy land
-Pope Urban II issues a speech calling for crusades, mostly for his own political interest
-plays up atrocities of Muslims upon Christian pilgrims
-the "second sons" of Europe hope to get land for themselves
-for others it was a form of penance, a way of achieving salvation, sometimes at massive personal expense

Medieval World II

Manorial System

600 AD - 1400 AD

System in which an agricultural estate is operated by a lord and worked by peasants
-provided the economic sustenance that made the lifestyle of the military elite possible, as it gave them leisure time to pursue the art of war
-small farmers needed protection
-by the 9th century, up to 60 percent of the population were serfs: peasants bound to the land and required to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord's jurisdiction

Feudalism

700 AD - 1300

Political and military system consisting of lords, vassals, and fiefs
-personal agreement of mutual loyalty and military service
-fixed hierarchy: King grants land to baron in exchange for fees and knights; Baron grants lands to knights; Knights let peasants work the land in exchange for food, services, and paying a portion of their produce
-fief-holding results in territorial law

Holy Roman Empire

962 AD - 1300 AD

A realm that attempted to create an empire like the one under Constantine: both Christian and Roman
-Otto I, a Saxon king of Germany is crowned emperor of the Romans in 962, like Charlemagne before him
-caused struggles between church and state, as kings tried to strengthen their power by controlling the church

Interdict

1000 AD - 1300 AD

Punishment by the pope of a region or country, depriving it from receiving sacraments
-priests forbidden to dispense sacraments in hopes that the people, without the comforts of religion, would pressure their ruler to give in to the demands of the papacy
-strengthened the papal monarchy
-used by Pope Innocent III against King John of England when he wouldn't accept the papal choice for the archbishop of canterbury

Excommunication

1200 - 1300

Put out of fellowship/membership with the church
-could not receive the sacraments
-weapon of power for the papacy against kings
-jeopardized entry into heaven, as well as the king's standing in the eyes of his subjects

Sacraments

1200 AD - 1300 AD

Rites considered imperative for a Christian's salvation
-Eucharist, baptism, marriage, penance, Last Rites, holy orders, and confirmation
-viewed as outward symbol of inner grace
-ensured that the church was an integral part of life from birth until death
-administered by clergy, who therefore were seen to have a critical role in one's salvation

Medieval World III

Universities

1000 - 1300

Academic institutions that grew on the idea of the intellectual pathway to God
-conviction that study was a way to worship God, NT: "Love the Lord Your God with all your mind"
-"All Truth is God's truth..."
-located in big cities
-provided people a way to move up in society
-degrees in liberal arts, theology, law, and medicine

High Middle Ages

1000 - 1300

The latter part of the medieval era
-end of invasions
-agricultural and industrial advances
-increased lifespan/population
-increased prosperity/economic growth
-growth of cities
-intellectual revival/rise of universities

relics

1000 - 1300

Bones or objects intimately connected to the saints
-used as objects to be greatly respected by the faithful
-the holiness of the saints was considered to be inherent in the relics
-these objects were thought capable of healing and producing miracles because of this inherent holiness

Eucaharist

1000 - 1300

One of the sacraments, also known as The Lord's Supper
-outward symbol of inward grace
-could only be administered by clergy
-Catholic thought involved the idea of transubstantiation, in which the bread and wine is transformed into the literal body of Christ

St. Anselm

1033 - 1109

Most important philosophical theologian between Augustine and Aquinas
-argued that faith comes before understanding, faith ABOVE reason
-reason can explain the truths of faith
-famous for his ontological argument: God is the greatest possible being, so he cannot exist only in our minds because what is in reality is greater than that which is merely in the mind. God, the greatest possible being, cannot be merely an idea, or He is not the greatest possible being.

Scholasticism

1200 - 1300

The philosophical and theological system of medieval schools
-attempted to reconcile faith and reason
-attempted to harmonize Christian revelation with the work of Aristotle (most famously by St. Thomas Aquinas)

St. Thomas Aquinas

1225 - 1274

Extremely influential writer and philisophical theologian who tried to show how Aristotle's ideas were compatible with Christianity
-extremely influential for Roman Catholics
-believed that faith perfects reason: reason gets us a long way but faith is needed for specific Christian truths such as creation, immortality, incarnation, trinity, etc.
-Ethics are compromised of Eternal, Natural, Divine, and Human law

Joan of Arc

1412 - 1431

A French peasant girl who received visions from saints commanding her to free France during the Hundred Years' War
-she was permitted to accompany a French army to Orleans, where her faith inspired the French armies
-with new confidence, the French liberated Orleans and turned the war around
-she was captured and turned over to the English and then the Inquisition, tried and burned at the stake for heresy
-in 1920 she was made a saint

Medieval and Renaissance Art

Gothic Cathedral

1000 - 1300

Elaborate churches that are one of the great artistic triumphs of the Middle Ages
-example of: medieval burst of energy, focus on God, act of faith (as those who started it would not see it finished)
-Medieval Synthesis: all aspects of life could come together: spiritual, intellectual, familial and occupational
-a visual Bible for a largely illiterate population
-scholasticism: angels and statues representing the liberal arts, as well as spiritual figures

Petrarch

1304 - 1374

The father of Italian Renaissance humanism
-did more than any individual in the 14th century to promote the development of humanism
-searched monastic libraries throughout Europe to find Latin manusctripts
-emphasized the use of pure classical Latin
-Christianity alongside humanism

Black Death

1348

Plague that swept Europe, killing around 1/3 of the people
-made labor more expensive, and thus a new "middle class" was able to start emerging
-people began flocking to towns, causing the growth of cities

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The division of European loyalty because of two popes claiming legitimacy, one in Rome and one in France
-the divide was largely political, France and its allies supported Clement; England and its allies supported Urban
-because the pope was believed to hold the keys to heaven, and both were denouncing one another, the faith of many Christians was damaged
-caused uncertainty as it undermined the papacy, which had become the foundation of the church...

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

Renowned artist of the Renaissance influenced be Neoplatonism and ideal beauty
-created ideal human forms that were meant to be a reflection of divine beauty
-worked on a great number of projects with passion and energy
-an example of l'uomo universale

Renaissance

Renaissance Humanism

1300 - 1600

Intellectual movement based on the study of classical literary works of Greece and Rome
-liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral philosophy or ethics, and history
-civic mindedness
-virtue
-life of action and involvement rather than contemplation

Gutenberg Printing Press

1450

Repeatable printing with moveable metal type
-one of the most important technological innovations of Western civilization, immediate impact on European life and thought
-by 1500, 40,000 titles (around 50 percent religious)
-encouraged the development of scholarly research
-helped spread ideas (like Reformation religious ideas)

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Dutch-born scholar and Most influential of all Christian humanists
-"the philosophy of Christ": Christianity should be a guiding philosophy for the direction of daily life rather than the system of dogmatic beliefs and practices
-inner piety vs external religious show (sacraments, fasts, veneration of saints, etc)
-education and moderation
-wanted reform within the church, not to destroy church unity

Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Diplomat of Florence, forced into exile, who wrote "The Prince"
-acquisition, maintenance, and expansion of political power to restore and maintain order
-contradicted medieval stress on a ruler's ethical behavior
-because human nature is self-centered, political activity cannot be restricted be morals
-safer to be feared than loved

Magellan

1480 - 1521

Led an expedition around the world that lasted from 1519 to 1522
-Left with five ships
-Magellan killed by natives in the Phillipines
-only one ship returned to Spain
-proved that a westward route to the Indies for trade was not profitable

Luther and the Reformation

Luther

1483 - 1546

Religious leader of the Reformation
-primary doctrine: justification by grace through faith alone, Bible as sole authority
-issued the Ninety-Five Theses: outcry against the selling of indulgences by the Catholic church

the 95 Theses

1517

Luther's scripture-based arguments against the selling of indulgences
-posted on the church door at Wittenberg
-translated into German, widely spread and circulated
-main concerns: pope overstepping his authority by telling people he could get them out of purgatory, people think they can buy their way to heaven, discourages good works

Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

An attempt to reform the Catholic church, spurred by Martin Luther's 95 Theses
-outcry against corruption: such as the selling of indulgences and clerical offices
-sola scriptura:
-sola fides:
-sola gratia:

Edict (Diet) of Worms

1521

Meeting of the Imperial States to address Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation
-declare Luther a heretic
-Prince Frederick hides Luther for his protection
-during his time in hiding, begins German translation of the Bible

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Treaty between German princes that allowed them to choose either Lutheranism or Catholicism within their state
-ended the religious struggle between the two groups
-subjects had to conform to the prince's choice or leave for another state