History vs Modern Art

US History

WWII

1939 - August 1945

Women in WWII

1939

women who worked in manufacturing plants during WWII were symbolized by Rosie the Riveter, which showed the economic power of women

Cold War

1946 - 1991

difference in political beliefs between the US and the USSR

Truman Doctrine

1947

supported containment, and said that the US would protect free people resisting communism
-Greece and Turkey

National Security Act

1947

created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the National Security Council

Soviet Spies

1948

Alger Hiss
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Fair Deal

1948

Truman proposed to extend the New Deal for this new era. Increased minimum wage. Social Security expanded. Slum cleanup.

Suburbia

1950

people began to move away from the cities because of may factors: automobiles, road system, Federal Housing Administration, better living conditions.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

North Korea invaded South Korea
the UN sent in troops
China sent in troops to fight the UN
cease-fire in July 1953

Domino Theory

1950

during the cold war: if 1 area was overtaken by communism, other nations would follow

McCarthy

1950

Republican senator from Wisconsin
accused many people of communism in the State Department

Eisenhower

1953

integration of military forces
desegregation

Vietnam War

1954 - 1975

North- led by Ho Chi Minh
South- supported by the US
north attempted to overthrow the south, and the south asked for aid to fend off communists

Brown v. BOE

1954

desegregation in public schools is illegal
contradicted Plessy v. Ferguson "separate but equal" ruling

Rosa Parks

1955

refused to give up her bus seat
preceded the bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama

Interstate Highway Act

1956

expanded highway system

Civil Rights Act of 1957

1957

stimulated by Brown v. BOE and civil rights activism

Sputnik

October 1957

Soviet satellite launched into space
concerned the US because they realized they were behind technologically
increased science education in the US

Counterculture

1960

free speech movement at Berkeley
-women's liberation, anti-materialism, opposition to the Vietnam War
drugs and sex
hippies
Woodstock Festival

Sit-ins

1960

students would sit in Whites Only sections and refuse to leave until they were served

Women's Liberation Movement

1960

increasing employment and education for women
questioned traditional women's roles

Television

1960

by 1960 over 40 million homes owned TVs

Alliance for Progress

1961

provide economic aid to Latin America to help the region resist communism

Berlin Wall

1961

East Berlin was under Communist control, fell in 1989

Bay of Pigs

April 1961

attempted invasion of Cuba by CIA-trained Cuban refugees
goal was to overthrow communist Castro
failed

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1962

American spy plane discovered Soviet missile sites in Cuba
Kennedy blockaded Cuba and declared that any missile attack on the US would result in retaliation against the USSR
USSR removed the missile sights and US lifted the blockade

MLK

1963

believed in peaceful civil disobedience
"I Have a Dream"

Betty Friedan

1963

published The Feminine Mystique which attacked traditional opinions on women
founded NOW

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

prohibited discrimination in public places

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965

voters couldnt be forced to take literacy tests

Moon Landing

July 20, 1969

Neil Armstrong- first man to walk on the moon

Kent State

1970

university protest against Vietnam War
4 students killed
led to other uprisings on college campuses

SALT I

1972

US and Soviets to stop building nuclear missiles for 5 years

Roe v. Wade

1973

legalized abortion in the first trimester

SALT II

1979

reduced and limited number of missile launchers and bombers

Art

Abstract Expressionism

1946 - 1956

Pop Art

1954 - 1970

made popular culture their subject matter
images such as household items, advertisements, celebrities, fast food, cartoons, mass media imagery
often used forms of mechanical production- downplayed the idea of originality
tested boundary between art and life

Minimalism

1960 - 1975

pure, geometric, abstract art
properties of space, scale, and materials were explored as ends in themselves rather than metaphors for human experience
natural materials
the idea of pushing art to its boundaries was characteristic of the counterculture sentiment of the 60s

Consumerism

1960

suggests that happiness can be achieved through the purchase of goods and services
cars, houses, TVs, furniture, modern appliances
advertisement and product placement
fast food chains in the suburbs

Appropriation

1960

the use of existing images and objects to create new works of art
household goods, ads, celebrities, fast food, cartoons, images from mass media
-Marilyn by Andy Warhol

Mass media

1960

many artists reproduced images from mass media (TV, newspaper)

Seriality

1960

repetition of forms

Andy Warhol

1960

took product labels and logos out of a commercial context and displayed them as art
borrowed images from tv, advertising, mass media
-Campbell's Soup Can (1966)
-Boxes
-Marilyn

Space

1960

reject traditional sculpture
placing artwork directly on the floor or wall

Colour and Surface

1960

bold, solid colours
smooth, even surfaces
conceal evidence of the artist's production
in rebellion to the Abstract Expressionist painters before them

Geometry

1960

simple geometric shapes, separate from reality
Amaryllis by Tony Smith

Op Art

1964 - 1970

test the limits of what could be considered a painting
optical illusions