Ms. Merchant - Unit 1 - USH


Isabella's Pigs


Isabella’s Pigs were pigs sent to the New World (America’s). Queen Isabella gave Columbus pigs for his voyage to the New World. These pigs provided fertilizer, food and fertility. The short term significance is that these pigs could provide Columbus with travelers/natives religions because if they would refuse an offering of pork if they were Jewish or Muslim. The long term significance is that this pigs spread disease rapidly, killing a large percentage of the Indian population unexposed to these diseases. The Spanish had less competition to form new colonies because the Indian population was slashed.

Protestant Reformation


A religious revolt against the Roman Church as a result of Martin Luther’s interpretation of eternal salvation giving less power to the church and pope. When people were actually attracted to Luther’s teachings, the church and pope had to combat new and never before dealt with competition. As a result, persecution of Protestants intensified.



A religious group in France. They were John Calvin's protestant followers that attempted to take down French royal power, resulting in 40 years of future violence. The Huguenots sought religious refuge, and in result made them the first french colony in the New World. They were destroyed by Spanish hitman sent to attack them on the reasoning that the New World needed to be solely Catholic.

Church of England


A protestant Church in England. The church was created by the King Henry the 8th as a result of the church denying his requested annulment. The public that already had bitter feelings towards the church helped make the church legitimate. The goal was to make Protestantism the official religion, but King Henry's successors switched between the two religions to often for the Church of England to truly be called a success.

Virginia Company


When the war with Spain ends, many workers out of jobs go to the New World on behalf of investors. These travelers are also inspired to go from there religious faith and wants to explore. The Virginia Company established the negative relationship with the Native Americans because the tribes provided the new pilgrims food and they were met with demands of large plots of land.

House of Burgesses


A government system in Virginia. The House of Burgesses was the first instiution of representative government in the English colonies; it showed the colonists early onset want for seperation from the English government. Despite the fact that England made Virginia a royal colony, colonists continued to elect representatives to the House of Burgesses. The House of Burgesses also encouraged immigration and helped the English outnumber the Indians.



A religious group in Massachusets Bay. The Puritans were the English followers of John Calvin that came to the Americas under a royal charter. The Puritans hoped to change the corrupt ideology of the church from the inside out. The Puritans also believed the their place they will establish in the Americas will be so religiously pure, it will be a "city upon a hill".

Mayflower Compact


A document in Plymouth. The Mayflower Compact was the first document of self-government in North America. Made by the pilgrims that were sent by the Virginia Company, this document had no connection to the crown.

Roger Williams

1644 - 1668

A dissenter in Salem. Williams advocated religious tolerance and tolerance with Native Americans and was widely critized for his open veiws. Williams established the independent colony of Rhole Island; this colony garunteed self-government and complete religious liberty.

French and Indian War (Seven Years War)


War between the English and the French. The Seven Years war formed a sense of unity between colonies of the same mother country. The French dominated during the first two years of the war due to lack of Great Britain's colonial cooperation. This war was fought in the Americas, Europe and Asia.

Sugar Act (Nonimportation)


Law in Great Britain. The Sugar Act taxed sugar imported into the colonies. This was the Prime Minister's way of obtaining needed revenue to pay for the war. This unfair and unrepresentative treatment caused protest and sparked nonimportation; a protest process where you cut off all imports in hopes for change.

Stamp Act (Virtual Representation)


A law in Great Britain. A legislation, similar to the sugar act, where all paper products and documents must be produced on official, taxed paper. This was the Prime Minister's way of obtaining needed revenue to pay for the war. This is an example of virtual representation; The colonies had their own government, but couldn't stop laws that were effecting them in British Parliment. Due to protests, most stamp distributers fled, making the enforcement of the law difficult and therefore repealing the Stamp Act.

Boston Tea Party


A protest sparked by the Tea Act where Bostonians dressed as Indians and dumped 18000 pounds (currency) of tea into the harbor. The Tea Act was so unsuccessful that it almost made the British East India Company bankrupt, and forced the company to bribe the colonists with cheap tea. This treatment is what caused such an aggressive outbreak.

First Continental Congress


A meeting in the Americas. A group of delegates meet in response to the Coercive Acts to decalre a list of basic rights; Parliment had violated 13 of these rights, and until Parliment repealed the acts that violates this list, the colonies agreed to impose sanctions on them. These sanctions included nonimportation and nonconsuption of British goods. The First Continental Congress also created the Commitee of Observation and Safety, which basically took over the functions of the local government in the colonies. The First Continental Congress was simply a time to list complaints and concerns, not to make laws.

Lexington and Concord


A battle in the Americas. When the British troops attempted to seize large amounts of gunpowder in Boston from the colonists, the colonial minutemen rebeled. After a long stalemate, the British attempted to attack again the Spring, but were forced to retreat due to the strength and fatality rates accompanies with the minutemen forces. Lexington and Concord marked the beginning of colonist's military victories over their mother country Britain.

2nd Continental Congress


A meeting in the America's. The Second Continental Congress was focused on the colony's military options; Congress wanted the colonies to be in a State of Defense, the the Boston Militia turned into the Continental Army. The Second Continental Army helped the colonies defend their rights as British citizens; they were radicals, but there intentions were with the British crown.

Declaration of Independence


A document in the Americas. The Declaration of Independence was created by Congress to finally make the British colonies in the Americas a seperate country. Congress made a list of unalienable rights, including the rights to abolish a law or government system that breaches these unalienable rights.

Common Sense


A political pamphlet in Philadelphia. Thomas Paine's Common Sense discussed how the equality of men is destroyed by class and economic distinction. It further discussed how the crown destroys the concept that all men are created equal and is impossible to get rid of. This pamphlet was the main catalyst for the writing of the Declaration of Independence; Paine’s Common Sense displayed the power of persuasive writing in politics.