Forming Middle East - ReadT


Growth of Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1699

Empire expanded, included many ethnic groups that lived in the empire.
Seat of power is modern day Turkey.

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

1699 - 1915

The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off.

Arab Nationalism

1880 - 2010

Arabs join together with a common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically, they wanted their own homeland. Didn't want to be under Ottoman rule


1914 - 1918

Armenian Genocide


Turkish rulers, worried that Armenians were helping Russians, killed many Armenian leaders and intellectuals. An estimated 1-2 million people were killed by the Turks

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence


British promised Arab (Sharif Hussein, guardian of Mecca) independence and future county if Arabs revolt against Ottoman Turks. (Join with British.)

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence


British Diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein, with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.

Sykes-Picot Agreement


Secret agreement between British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.

Balfour Declaration


British promised to the Zionist leaders a homeland in Palestine in exchange for support in war.

Turkish War of Independence


Kemal Ataturk leads the Turkish War of Independence against Western occupying forces. He establishes an independent and sovereign. leads country in secular reforms.

Sykes-Picot Agrrement

1920 - 1948

The Sykes-Picot Agreement goes into effect. The British Mandate of Palestine puts into place the Balfour Declaration, despite previous assurances to the Arabs for independent state.
British control Palestine, Jordan and Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France controls Syria and Lebanon.

Arab Revolt

1920 - Present

Arab population revolt against European colonial rule.