Empire expanded and included a number of ethnic and religious groups. The empire was ruled by Turkish Muslims. It included the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off. All that remains is Turkey.
Arabs join together with a common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically they wanted their own homeland so as to be free from Ottoman rule.
British diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.
British promise Arabs independence and a unified Arab kingdom if they revolt against Ottoman Turks (Join with British).
Turkish rulers worried that Armenians were helping Russians. Many Armenian leaders and intellectuals were killed as well as an estimated 1-2 million people by the Turks.
Secret agreement between British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.
British promised Jews the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine as well as protect the rights of the non-Jewish inhabitants.
Kemal Ataturk leads the Turkish War of Independence against Western occupying forces. He establishes an independent and sovereign Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.
Arab population revolt against European colonial rule.
British control Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France controls Syria and Lebanon.