Forming Middle East-SmytheE


Growth of the Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1699

Empire expanded and included a number of ethnic and religious groups. The empire was ruled by Turkish Muslims. It included the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

1699 - 1915

The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off. All that remains is Turkey.

Arab Nationalism

1880 - 2010

Arabs join together with a common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically they wanted their own homeland so as to be free from Ottoman rule.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Armenian Genocide


Turkish rulers worried that Armenians were helping Russians. Many Armenian leaders and intellectuals were killed as well as an estimated 1-2 million people by the Turks.

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence


British promise Arabs independence and a unified Arab kingdom if they revolt against Ottoman Turks (Join with British).

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence


British diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.

Sykes-Picot Agreement


Secret agreement between British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.

Balfour Declaration


British promised Jews the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine as well as protect the rights of the non-Jewish inhabitants.

Turkish War of Independence


Kemal Ataturk leads the Turkish War of Independence against Western occupying forces. He establishes an independent and sovereign Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.

Sykes-Picot Agreement goes into effect

1920 - 1948

British control Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France controls Syria and Lebanon.

Arab Revolt

1920 - Present

Arab population revolt against European colonial rule.