Following the Kansas-Nebraska act, the new territory of Kansas was opened up for settlers. Most of the settlers were abolitionists from New England, along with some more slave-minded elements from neighboring Missouri. When it came to decide about whether or not Kansas should have slaves, thousands of Missouri "Border Ruffians" came over and voted pro-slave. Now, the Kansans didn't like this, and a separate abolitionist Constitution was drafted. Kansas had two constitutions, one free and one slave, and open violence soon broke out. Radical abolitionist John Brown came in 1855 and defeated a slave state force 7 times his size in Osawatomie. Meanwhile, a congressional investigative committee came and found out that the election was unfairly influenced by the Border Ruffians. However, Pierce failed to act on their requests and went along with the slave constitution. Conflict in both Kansas and Congress went on until 1861, when Kansas was admitted as a free state. However, additional guerrilla warfare raged on between Kansas and Missouri during the Civil War.