Forming Middle East - AmyS


Decline of the Ottoman Empire

1699 - 1915

The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off.

Arab Nationalism

1880 - 2010

Arabs join together with common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically, they wanted their own homeland.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Hussein-McMahon Correspondence


British Diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein, with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.

Armenian Genocide


Turkish rulers, worried that Armeinians were helping Russians, killed many Armenian leaders and intellectuals. An estimated 1-2 million people were killed by the Turks.

Hussein-McMahan Correspondence


British (McMahon) promise Arabs (Sharif Hussein, guardian of Mecca) independence and future country if Arabs revolt against Ottoman Turks. (Join with British.)

Sykes-Picot Agreement


Secret agreement between British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.

Balfour Declaration


Ataturk leads war of independence.


Fights against Western occupying forces and establishes an independent Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.

Arab revolt

1920 - Present

Arab populations revolt against European colonial rule.

Sykes-Picot agreement goes into effect

1920 - 1948

British control Palestine, Jordan and Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.

France controls Syria and Lebanon.