The outer fringes of the empire were the first to split off.
Arabs join together with common purpose to achieve political and cultural goals. Specifically, they wanted their own homeland.
British Diplomat McMahon writes to Sharif Hussein, with vague promise of homeland if Ottoman Empire breaks up with Arab help.
Turkish rulers, worried that Armeinians were helping Russians, killed many Armenian leaders and intellectuals. An estimated 1-2 million people were killed by the Turks.
British (McMahon) promise Arabs (Sharif Hussein, guardian of Mecca) independence and future country if Arabs revolt against Ottoman Turks. (Join with British.)
Secret agreement between British and French to divide up the Ottoman Empire if it failed.
Fights against Western occupying forces and establishes an independent Turkey. Leads country in secular reforms.
Arab populations revolt against European colonial rule.
British control Palestine, Jordan and Iraq and establishes a Jewish homeland in Palestine following the Balfour Declaration.
France controls Syria and Lebanon.