The Seven Years' War in Europe lasted from 1756-1763. France and England battled over the Ohio River territories and the Indians sided with the French.
"I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." ~Captain Nathan Hale. The colonists of early America were fed up with Great Britain's taxes. They decided they wanted to have their own government, but Great Britain thought otherwise.
During the War of 1812 Dolly Madison, the president's wife, rescued important documents and a portrait of George Washington when the British set fire to the White House.
"Remember the Alamo!" was a famous battle cry during this war.
This war was a quarrel over the border between Mexico and Texas. Eventually, the Americans won and the border was decided on the Rio Grande.
"A house devided against itself cannot stand" ~Abraham Lincoln. This war was over the slaves that were being held in the south. Even after the war ended some people kept their slaves until soldiers had to remove them at gunpoint.
The U.S. didn't enter World War I for the first three years of the war. Only when the Zimmerman Note was found did the U.S. enter the war.
The U.S. entered World War II when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. The U.S. ended World War II by dropping the first atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
This war occurred when communist North Korea sent troops into non-communist South Korea. The U.S. and fifteen other nations sent armies to protect South Korea from communism.
The U.S. troops had several casualties because the Vietnamese would come out of tunnels in the ground and surprise the men with an attack.
In this battle the British stood out in the open while the French and Indians hid behind trees hidden from view. Over half of the British were killed.
Late at night the British climbed up a cliff to capture Quebec city, the head of the French in the Americas. The British won by surprise.
The soldiers of the British were confused and killed five colonists in Boston.
Several British colonists dressed up as indians and dumped several chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.
Paul Revere and some of his patriot friends rode through the courntyside yelling for all to hear, "The British are coming!"
Otherwise known as the Battle of Lexington, it was the first official battle of the Revolutionary war.
Ethen Allen and the green mountain boys attacked and conquered Fort Ticonderoga in early morning.
The patriots dug trenches in the hill at night and attacked the British. The patriots would have won, however they ran out of gunpowder. In Boston the colonists climbed up on top of their roofs to watch the battle.
"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." Nathan Hale was hung as a spy against the British.
On Christmas night, Washington sailed his troops across the Delaware river into Trenton, New Jersey. He attacked the Hessians while they were sleeping. Washington won the battle.
Known as the turning point of the Revolutionary war, this battle convinced the french to help the Patriots.
"I have not yet begun to fight!" John Paul Jones and his small boat took on the Serapis and sailed home as a war hero.
The Battle of Yorktown was when General Cornwallis marched his army to Yorktown expecting help from the British army. The French, however, intervened by blocking the British ships off. Washington attacked the British soldiers and finally, Cornwallis surrendered the British army.
The first time that the United States as a country declared war on another.
During the battle at Fort McHenry, a patriot was caught on a british ship during the battle. After the battle, searching through the morning, he saw the American flag that inspired him to write the National Anthem.
The British marched into Washington D.C. and burned the Capitol Building and the White House. Dolly Madison, the president's wife, saved several important documents from the flames.
The Battle of the Alamo was when 187 men fought against the Mexican army in a struggle for independence. The battle didn't end until all 187 had men killed.
In this battle Santa Anna himself was captured with his army, causing Texas to become independent.
Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter and began the Civil war.
The Merrimac and the Monitor were the first of its kind. Neither side won because the two ships couldn't destroy each other!
Considered the turning point of the war.
The Union gained control of the Mississippi River.
General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.
When Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, were riding through Serbia a young man shot both the archduke and his wife to death. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, who was allied with Germany.
As the Lusitania was sailing to England a german U-boat fired a torpedo into her side. The ship sank and over 1,000 people lost their lives, including 100 Americans.
The Zimmerman note was a letter from Germany to Mexico asking her to enter World War I on the German side. Germany even promised Mexico part of the United States if Germany won the war!
The Americans were now enraged over Zimmerman note and the sinking of the Lusitania. The United States formally declared ware on Germany. "The world must be made safe for democracy."- President Woodrow Wilson
Finally the Central Powers surrendered. World War I had ended at last. Today November 11 is celebrated as Veterans day, honoring those who fought for our country in any war and all who served in our military.
Adolph Hitler had begun to conquer the small countries that surrounded germany. Then he attacked Poland. France and Great Britan both warned Germany to back out of Poland. Hitler refused. Great Britan and France declared war on Germany
By now germany had conquered Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belguim, Luxemberg, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. Soon Germany began to attack France. The world was alarmed when France fell under Germany's rule.
Hitler sent planes loaded with bombs to fly over England. The whole time, Hitler expected them to give up, but they did not. Finally England's air force beat back the Germans. The United States was relieved. England had not been conquered.
Germany turned toward Russia and attcked her. Russia was surprised. Germany and Russia had signed a non-aggression pact in 1939! Confused, Russia asked Great Britan and the United States to help. Great Britan agreed. However, the Soviet Union harsh winter came. The Germans food, trucks, tanks, and soldiers froze. Slowly but surely, the Germans were driven out of the country.
The Japanese wanted to control Asia. She feared that the United States wouldn't allow her. they planned an attack on Pearl Harbor in Oahu, Hawaii. They loaded 200 Japanese planes with bombs and dropped them at their destination. Many ships in the Pacific fleet were sunk or badly damaged and over 2,000 Americans were killed.
On December 8, 1941, the enraged United States and Canada declared war on Japan. Just a few days later, Germany and Italy declared ware on the United States.
On June 6, 1944, allied troops landed on the beaches on northern France on D-Day. For several weeks, the soldiers fought bravely. And finally, on August of 1944, France was free!
V-E Day, or victory in Europe day, was great celebration. Germany had surrendered! May 8 is now celebrated as V-E Day.
Japan had lost much during the war, but she refused to surrender. The United States debated heavily on whether or not to drop an atomic bomb. Finally, a decision was reached. Bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Thousands died. The Japanese finally surrendered.
Communist North Korea invaded South Korea. The UN ordered North Korea to stop, but the communists did not heed. The UN and the US sent troops to drive the communists out.
President Harry S. Truman believed in a foriegn policy called containment, which committed American troops to stay on the defensive and simply prevent communism from spreading. This did not allow the american army to invade North Korea and abolish communism in that part of the Asia once and for all. So the war ended.
500,000 Americans were sent of South Vietnam to defend freedom. They fought bravely, but they were not allowed by the United States to win. This war became known as the Vietnam war. The United States lost the war.
This part of land stretched west to the Mississippi river, east to the Atlantic ocean, south to Florida, and North to Canada.
The Louisiana Purchase was bought for $15 million from Napoleon Bonaparte. It more than doubled the size of the United States.
Florida was bought for $5 million dollars. The US wanted it because the Spanish in Florida would attack the settlers in Georgia and Alabama.
Texas governed herself after the Texas war for independence until in 1845 when she joined the United States.
When Oregon was added to the United States many settlers took the Oregon trail to start a new life.
After the Mexican war the US bought a large peice of land on the west coast for $15 million.
A small peice of land that made up the bottoms of Arizona and New Mexico was bought to build a railroad through the southwest.
Alaska was bought by William H. Seward, the Secretary of State, for $7.2 million.
Passed by Parliament that required all newspapers, almanacs, marriage certificates, and other documents to have a seal on the paper that certified they had paid the tax. It was dropped in 1766.
This law passed by parliament enforced that the colonists could not live on the land that they fought for in the French and Indian war. The Colonists were angry.
50 men from the colonies met in Philidelphia. They put into writing their request that their rights be respected. As a response, England sent warships.
This time the men decided:
1. That America needed an organized army
2. George Washington would command the new army
On July 4 the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted by the twelve of the thirteen colonies. New York, the last colony to vote, adopted it a few days later.
The flag was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on June 14. According to an old story, the flag was stiched by Betsy Ross.
The Articles of Confederation was the first government the Americans had. The government was not strong enough. It had to power to tax or settle quarrels.
The treaty of Paris granted the colonists all of the English claims to land East of the Mississippi.
It Guaranteed freedom of religion, outlawed slavery, guaranteed fair treatment of the Inians, and provided trail by a jury for all citizens accused of crimes.
The founding fathers gave our country a constitutional republic, a form of government in which the people and their elected representatives are limited by a constitution.
The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812.
When Missouri became a slave state, no other territories north of an established boundary line could enter the Union as slave states.
Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trading with Japan.
The Harris Treaty, introduced by Townsend Harris, opened Japan to Christian Missionaries.
This document passed by the Union stated that all slaves would be considered free in any states that were fighting against the Union.
In Appamattox Courthouse, Virginia, Grant wrote generous terms of surrender. Lee signed the document, and the war ended.
When President Reagan believed in stopping Communism before it could enslave a country.
Chief of the Wampanoag tribe.
Taught the Pilgrims how to grow their food.
Welcomed the Pilgrims to Plymouth
A famous Mohawk cheif who helped translate the Bible into the Mohawk language.
Sequoya invented a written language for his people that he called syllabary.
Tecumseh fought to keep all white men out of Indian territory.
Sacagawea was a Shoshone Indian that led Lewis and Clark through the wilderness to explore the Louisiana Purchase.
Sitting Bull was a Sioux medicine man and chief. He claimed to have a vision of many white soldiers falling into his camp like grasshoppers from the sky. On June 25, 1876, the Battle of Little Bighorn took place. General Custer and over two hundred soldiers lost their lives.
Jim Thorpe is considered one of America's greatest athletes.
Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine which removed the seeds from cotton and greatly increased the speed of harvesting.
Robert Fulton Invented the steamboat. The Clermont was the first boat of its kind. Its maiden voyage was along the Hudson River.
Cyrus McCormick invented a mechanical reaper. It made the time for harvesting wheat a fraction of what it used to be.
Andrew Carnegie saw the future in steel. He made millions off the steel industry.
Samuel Colt invented the Revolver.
Charles Goodyear invented the vulcanization of rubber, a process which makes it stronger and more durable and did away with its stikiness.
John D. Rockefeller united several small oil companies. He produced the most oil, for the cheapest prices, and with the best service. He soon monopolized the oil industry and became the world's first billionaire.
Samuel Morse invented the telagraph and a system called Morse code to go with it.
Elias Howe invented the lock-stitch sewing machine.
George Pullman invented the Pullman sleeping car for trains.
P.D. Armour invented meat packing.
George Westinghouse invented the railroad air brake.
C.L. Sholes invented the typewriter.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in March of 1876. It transformed the nation.
Thomas Alva Edison invented the phonograph. It was the first invention that got him noticed by the US. "Genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration."
Thomas Alva Edison invented the Lightbulb. "Aren't you discouraged?" asked his friends, wondering why he wouldn't give up. "Discouraged?" he asked. "Why I've made progress! I have found out 10,000 things that won't work!" and with that, he went back to work.
Jan Ernst Matzeliger invented the shoe-lasting machine.
George Eastman invented the Kodak box camera.
Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph.
Henry Ford used the assembly line process to make cars quicklky, easily, and cheaply. It made cars avaliable to most american families.
Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the first airplane with a motor in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
Garrett A. Morgan invented the traffic signal.
Robert H. Goddard launched the first successful liquid fuel rocket ever built.
Dr.Jonas Salk developed the Polio vaccine.
Of Plymouth Plantation was a book written by William Bradford of things that happened in Plymouth.
The New England Primer was the book millions of American children learned to read from. It was in constant use for over 150 years.
Phillis Wheatley was the first black woman writer in America to have a book published.
The American Spelling Book was written by Noah Webster. It has sold over 100 million copies.
During the Battle of Fort McHenry the nation's national anthem was written by an inspired man.
William H. McGuffey wrote the McGuffey Reader. It has sold over 122 Million copies.
The Spirituals were songs that negro slaves would sing while working in the feilds.
Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about slaves in the south.
The show was starred with Annie Oakly, Wild Bill Hickok, Sitting Bull, Cowboys, and american indians.
The Pledge of Allegiance was published in a children's magazine at first. It was printed into a leaflet and soon every school had a flag and children were learning the pledge.
Marian Anderson was one of the greatest opera singers of the age.
Daniel Boone cleared the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky.
The Liberty Bell was rung in Philadelphia when the Declaration of Independence was read. On the bell was written, Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof.
New York City was the first capital of the United States.
Washington was sworn in as the first president of the united states.
The Erie Canal was the first major man-made canal in the United States.
In 1849 thousands of people flocked to California in search for gold. This was called the California Gold Rush.
Thousands of slaves fled along the Underground Railroad to freedom.
The Pony Express lasted only 19 months. It could get a a letter from the east coast to the west coast in 10 days.
For two hours a man named Edward Everett spoke about the battle at gettysburg. Then President Lincoln stood up for his speech. He spook for less than three minutes with 10 direct sentences. Now we remember President Lincoln's speech, but Edward Everett's was not written down.
The president was shot by John Wilkes Booth in Ford's Theatre.
The transcontinental Railroad was finished at Promontory Point, Utah.
Clara Barton founded the American National Red Cross.
The Oklahoma Land Rush was when thousands of Americans lined up along the borders of oklahoma to scramble over the border and claim their own part of Oklahoma.
Robert Peary and Matthew Henson discovered the North Pole.
The Titanic hit an iceburg and sunk on her maiden voyage, taking over 1,500 men, woman, and children down with her to the seabed.
President Theodore Roosevelt built the Panama Canal.
Mary McLeod Bethune devoted her life to ensure that black children had a good education.
The Great Depression was when no one had any money, not even the government.
The Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after leaving the launch pad, killing all seven onboard.