US History

Wars

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

The Seven Years' War in Europe lasted from 1756-1763. France and England battled over the Ohio River territories and the Indians sided with the French.

Revolutionary War

1775 - 1783

"I regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." ~Captain Nathan Hale. The colonists of early America were fed up with Great Britain's taxes. They decided they wanted to have their own government, but Great Britain thought otherwise.

War of 1812

June 18 1812 - 1814

During the War of 1812 Dolly Madison, the president's wife, rescued important documents and a portrait of George Washington when the British set fire to the White House.

Texas War for Independence

1835 - 1836

"Remember the Alamo!" was a famous battle cry during this war.

Mexican War

1846 - 1848

This war was a quarrel over the border between Mexico and Texas. Eventually, the Americans won and the border was decided on the Rio Grande.

The Civil War

1861 - 1865

"A house devided against itself cannot stand" ~Abraham Lincoln. This war was over the slaves that were being held in the south. Even after the war ended some people kept their slaves until soldiers had to remove them at gunpoint.

World War I

1914 - 1918

The U.S. didn't enter World War I for the first three years of the war. Only when the Zimmerman Note was found did the U.S. enter the war.

World War II

1939 - 1945

The U.S. entered World War II when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor. The U.S. ended World War II by dropping the first atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Korean War

1950 - 1953

This war occurred when communist North Korea sent troops into non-communist South Korea. The U.S. and fifteen other nations sent armies to protect South Korea from communism.

Vietnam War

1965 - 1973

The U.S. troops had several casualties because the Vietnamese would come out of tunnels in the ground and surprise the men with an attack.

War Notes

Fort Duquense

July 1755

In this battle the British stood out in the open while the French and Indians hid behind trees hidden from view. Over half of the British were killed.

Battle of Quebec

1759

Late at night the British climbed up a cliff to capture Quebec city, the head of the French in the Americas. The British won by surprise.

Boston Massacre

March 1770

The soldiers of the British were confused and killed five colonists in Boston.

Boston Tea Party

December 1773

Several British colonists dressed up as indians and dumped several chests of tea into the Boston Harbor.

Midnight Ride

April 18 1775

Paul Revere and some of his patriot friends rode through the courntyside yelling for all to hear, "The British are coming!"

Shot Heard 'round the World

April 19 1775

Otherwise known as the Battle of Lexington, it was the first official battle of the Revolutionary war.

The Green Mountain Boys

May 1775

Ethen Allen and the green mountain boys attacked and conquered Fort Ticonderoga in early morning.

Battle of Bunker Hill

June 17 1775

The patriots dug trenches in the hill at night and attacked the British. The patriots would have won, however they ran out of gunpowder. In Boston the colonists climbed up on top of their roofs to watch the battle.

Nathan Hale

September 22 1776

"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." Nathan Hale was hung as a spy against the British.

Washington Crosses the Delaware

December 25 1776

On Christmas night, Washington sailed his troops across the Delaware river into Trenton, New Jersey. He attacked the Hessians while they were sleeping. Washington won the battle.

Battle of Saratoga

October 7 1777

Known as the turning point of the Revolutionary war, this battle convinced the french to help the Patriots.

Bonhomme Richard and the Serapis

September 23 1779

"I have not yet begun to fight!" John Paul Jones and his small boat took on the Serapis and sailed home as a war hero.

The Final Battle

October 19 1781

The Battle of Yorktown was when General Cornwallis marched his army to Yorktown expecting help from the British army. The French, however, intervened by blocking the British ships off. Washington attacked the British soldiers and finally, Cornwallis surrendered the British army.

War is Declared

June 18 1812

The first time that the United States as a country declared war on another.

Oh say, Can you see?

1814

During the battle at Fort McHenry, a patriot was caught on a british ship during the battle. After the battle, searching through the morning, he saw the American flag that inspired him to write the National Anthem.

Fire is set to the White House

1814

The British marched into Washington D.C. and burned the Capitol Building and the White House. Dolly Madison, the president's wife, saved several important documents from the flames.

Remember the Alamo!

February 23 1836

The Battle of the Alamo was when 187 men fought against the Mexican army in a struggle for independence. The battle didn't end until all 187 had men killed.

Battle of San Jacinto

April 21 1836

In this battle Santa Anna himself was captured with his army, causing Texas to become independent.

The War Begins

April 12 1861

Confederate forces fired on Fort Sumter and began the Civil war.

Merrimac and the Monitor

March 9 1862

The Merrimac and the Monitor were the first of its kind. Neither side won because the two ships couldn't destroy each other!

Battle of Gettysburg

1863

Considered the turning point of the war.

Battle of Vicksburg

July 1863

The Union gained control of the Mississippi River.

The War Ends

April 9 1865

General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomattox Court House in Virginia.

Let there be War!

June 28 1914

When Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, were riding through Serbia a young man shot both the archduke and his wife to death. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, who was allied with Germany.

The Lusitania

May 1915

As the Lusitania was sailing to England a german U-boat fired a torpedo into her side. The ship sank and over 1,000 people lost their lives, including 100 Americans.

The Zimmerman Note

March 1917

The Zimmerman note was a letter from Germany to Mexico asking her to enter World War I on the German side. Germany even promised Mexico part of the United States if Germany won the war!

The United States declares War!

April 1917

The Americans were now enraged over Zimmerman note and the sinking of the Lusitania. The United States formally declared ware on Germany. "The world must be made safe for democracy."- President Woodrow Wilson

The War is over!

November 11 1918

Finally the Central Powers surrendered. World War I had ended at last. Today November 11 is celebrated as Veterans day, honoring those who fought for our country in any war and all who served in our military.

World War II Begins

1939

Adolph Hitler had begun to conquer the small countries that surrounded germany. Then he attacked Poland. France and Great Britan both warned Germany to back out of Poland. Hitler refused. Great Britan and France declared war on Germany

Germany, an Empire?

April 1940

By now germany had conquered Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belguim, Luxemberg, Austria, Czechoslovakia, and Poland. Soon Germany began to attack France. The world was alarmed when France fell under Germany's rule.

Battle of Britan

July 10 1940

Hitler sent planes loaded with bombs to fly over England. The whole time, Hitler expected them to give up, but they did not. Finally England's air force beat back the Germans. The United States was relieved. England had not been conquered.

Germany attacks her allies

June 1941

Germany turned toward Russia and attcked her. Russia was surprised. Germany and Russia had signed a non-aggression pact in 1939! Confused, Russia asked Great Britan and the United States to help. Great Britan agreed. However, the Soviet Union harsh winter came. The Germans food, trucks, tanks, and soldiers froze. Slowly but surely, the Germans were driven out of the country.

Pearl Harbor is attacked!

December 7 1941

The Japanese wanted to control Asia. She feared that the United States wouldn't allow her. they planned an attack on Pearl Harbor in Oahu, Hawaii. They loaded 200 Japanese planes with bombs and dropped them at their destination. Many ships in the Pacific fleet were sunk or badly damaged and over 2,000 Americans were killed.

War is Declared!

December 8 1941

On December 8, 1941, the enraged United States and Canada declared war on Japan. Just a few days later, Germany and Italy declared ware on the United States.

France is free!

June 6 1944

On June 6, 1944, allied troops landed on the beaches on northern France on D-Day. For several weeks, the soldiers fought bravely. And finally, on August of 1944, France was free!

Germany Surrenders!

May 7 1945

V-E Day, or victory in Europe day, was great celebration. Germany had surrendered! May 8 is now celebrated as V-E Day.

Japan Surrenders

August 6 1945

Japan had lost much during the war, but she refused to surrender. The United States debated heavily on whether or not to drop an atomic bomb. Finally, a decision was reached. Bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Thousands died. The Japanese finally surrendered.

South Korea is attacked

1950

Communist North Korea invaded South Korea. The UN ordered North Korea to stop, but the communists did not heed. The UN and the US sent troops to drive the communists out.

Korea is safe

1953

President Harry S. Truman believed in a foriegn policy called containment, which committed American troops to stay on the defensive and simply prevent communism from spreading. This did not allow the american army to invade North Korea and abolish communism in that part of the Asia once and for all. So the war ended.

The Vietnam War

1964

500,000 Americans were sent of South Vietnam to defend freedom. They fought bravely, but they were not allowed by the United States to win. This war became known as the Vietnam war. The United States lost the war.

Presidents

George Washington

1789 - 1797

John Adams

1797 - 1801

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

James Madison

1809 - 1817

James Monroe

1817 - 1825

John Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841

William Henry Harrison

1841 - 04/04/1841

John Tyler

04/04/1841 - 1845

James K. Polk

1845 - 1849

Zachary Taylor

1849 - 1850

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

Franklin Peirce

1853 - 1857

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Andrew Johnson

1865 - 1869

Ulysses S. Grant

1869 - 1877

Rutherford B. Hayes

1877 - 03/04/1881

James A. Garfield

03/04/1881 - 09/19/1881

Chester A. Arthur

09/19/1881 - 1885

Grover Cleveland

1885 - 1889

Benjamin Harrison

1889 - 1893

Grover Cleveland

1893 - 1897

William McKinley

1897 - 1901

Theodore Roosevelt

1901 - 1909

William Howard Taft

1909 - 1913

Woodrow Wilson

1913 - 1921

Warren G. Harding

1921 - 1923

Calvin Coolidge

1923 - 1929

Herbert Hoover

1929 - 1933

Franklin D. Roosevelt

1933 - 1945

Harry S. Truman

1945 - 1953

Dwight D. Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

John F. Kennedy

1961 - 1963

Lyndon B. Johnson

1963 - 1969

Richard M. Nixon

1969 - 1974

Gerald R. Ford

1974 - 1977

James E. Carter

1977 - 1981

Ronald Reagan

1981 - 1989

George H. W. Bush

1989 - 1993

William J. Clinton

1993 - 2001

George W. Bush

2001 - 2009

Barac Obama

2009 - 2016

Territories

Northwest Territory

1783

This part of land stretched west to the Mississippi river, east to the Atlantic ocean, south to Florida, and North to Canada.

Louisiana Purchase

1803

The Louisiana Purchase was bought for $15 million from Napoleon Bonaparte. It more than doubled the size of the United States.

Florida

1819

Florida was bought for $5 million dollars. The US wanted it because the Spanish in Florida would attack the settlers in Georgia and Alabama.

Texas

1845

Texas governed herself after the Texas war for independence until in 1845 when she joined the United States.

Oregon Country

1846

When Oregon was added to the United States many settlers took the Oregon trail to start a new life.

Mexican Cession

1848

After the Mexican war the US bought a large peice of land on the west coast for $15 million.

Gadsden Purchase

1853

A small peice of land that made up the bottoms of Arizona and New Mexico was bought to build a railroad through the southwest.

Alaska

1867

Alaska was bought by William H. Seward, the Secretary of State, for $7.2 million.

Legal

Stamp Act

1765

Passed by Parliament that required all newspapers, almanacs, marriage certificates, and other documents to have a seal on the paper that certified they had paid the tax. It was dropped in 1766.

Quebec Act

June 22 1774

This law passed by parliament enforced that the colonists could not live on the land that they fought for in the French and Indian war. The Colonists were angry.

First Continental Congress

September 1774

50 men from the colonies met in Philidelphia. They put into writing their request that their rights be respected. As a response, England sent warships.

Second Continental Congress

May 1775

This time the men decided:
1. That America needed an organized army
2. George Washington would command the new army

Declaration of Independence

July 2 1776

On July 4 the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted by the twelve of the thirteen colonies. New York, the last colony to vote, adopted it a few days later.

The United States Flag

June 14 1777

The flag was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on June 14. According to an old story, the flag was stiched by Betsy Ross.

Articles of Confederation

March 1 1781

The Articles of Confederation was the first government the Americans had. The government was not strong enough. It had to power to tax or settle quarrels.

Treaty of Paris

1783

The treaty of Paris granted the colonists all of the English claims to land East of the Mississippi.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

1787

It Guaranteed freedom of religion, outlawed slavery, guaranteed fair treatment of the Inians, and provided trail by a jury for all citizens accused of crimes.

The Constitution

June 21 1788

The founding fathers gave our country a constitutional republic, a form of government in which the people and their elected representatives are limited by a constitution.

The Bill of Rights

December 15 1791

Treaty of Ghent

1814

The Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812.

Missouri Compromise

1820

When Missouri became a slave state, no other territories north of an established boundary line could enter the Union as slave states.

Japanese Trade Treaty

1854

Commodore Matthew Perry went to Japan to open trading with Japan.

Harris Treaty

1858

The Harris Treaty, introduced by Townsend Harris, opened Japan to Christian Missionaries.

Emancipation Proclamation

January 1 1863

This document passed by the Union stated that all slaves would be considered free in any states that were fighting against the Union.

Surrender of the south

April 9 1865

In Appamattox Courthouse, Virginia, Grant wrote generous terms of surrender. Lee signed the document, and the war ended.

Roe vs. Wade

1973

Legalized abortion.

Reagan Doctrine

1985

When President Reagan believed in stopping Communism before it could enslave a country.

Indians

Massasoit

1581 - 1661

Chief of the Wampanoag tribe.

Squanto

January 1 1585 - November 30 1622

Taught the Pilgrims how to grow their food.

Samoset

1590 - 1653

Welcomed the Pilgrims to Plymouth

Joseph Brant

1742 - 1807

A famous Mohawk cheif who helped translate the Bible into the Mohawk language.

Sequoya

1760 - 1843

Sequoya invented a written language for his people that he called syllabary.

Tecumseh

1768 - 1813

Tecumseh fought to keep all white men out of Indian territory.

Sacagawea

1788 - December 20 1812

Sacagawea was a Shoshone Indian that led Lewis and Clark through the wilderness to explore the Louisiana Purchase.

Sitting Bull

1831 - December 15 1890

Sitting Bull was a Sioux medicine man and chief. He claimed to have a vision of many white soldiers falling into his camp like grasshoppers from the sky. On June 25, 1876, the Battle of Little Bighorn took place. General Custer and over two hundred soldiers lost their lives.

Jim Thorpe

May 28 1888 - March 28 1953

Jim Thorpe is considered one of America's greatest athletes.

Inventions and Scientific Discoveries

The Cotton Gin

1793

Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine which removed the seeds from cotton and greatly increased the speed of harvesting.

The Steamboat

1807

Robert Fulton Invented the steamboat. The Clermont was the first boat of its kind. Its maiden voyage was along the Hudson River.

The Mechanical Reaper

1831

Cyrus McCormick invented a mechanical reaper. It made the time for harvesting wheat a fraction of what it used to be.

Andrew Carnegie

1835 - 1919

Andrew Carnegie saw the future in steel. He made millions off the steel industry.

The Revolver

1836

Samuel Colt invented the Revolver.

Vulcanization of Rubber

1839

Charles Goodyear invented the vulcanization of rubber, a process which makes it stronger and more durable and did away with its stikiness.

John D. Rockefeller

1839 - 1937

John D. Rockefeller united several small oil companies. He produced the most oil, for the cheapest prices, and with the best service. He soon monopolized the oil industry and became the world's first billionaire.

The Telegraph

May 1844

Samuel Morse invented the telagraph and a system called Morse code to go with it.

Lock-stitch Sewing Machine

1846

Elias Howe invented the lock-stitch sewing machine.

Pullman Sleeping Cars

1864

George Pullman invented the Pullman sleeping car for trains.

Meat Packing

1867

P.D. Armour invented meat packing.

Railroad Air Brake

1868

George Westinghouse invented the railroad air brake.

Typewriter

1868

C.L. Sholes invented the typewriter.

The Telephone

March 1876

Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in March of 1876. It transformed the nation.

The Phonograph

1877

Thomas Alva Edison invented the phonograph. It was the first invention that got him noticed by the US. "Genius is 1 percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration."

The Lightbulb

October 22 1879

Thomas Alva Edison invented the Lightbulb. "Aren't you discouraged?" asked his friends, wondering why he wouldn't give up. "Discouraged?" he asked. "Why I've made progress! I have found out 10,000 things that won't work!" and with that, he went back to work.

The Shoe Lasting Machine

1883

Jan Ernst Matzeliger invented the shoe-lasting machine.

Kodak Box Camera

1888

George Eastman invented the Kodak box camera.

Wireless Telegraph

1895

Guglielmo Marconi invented the wireless telegraph.

Assembly Line Automobiles

June 16 1903

Henry Ford used the assembly line process to make cars quicklky, easily, and cheaply. It made cars avaliable to most american families.

The Airplane

December 17 1903

Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the first airplane with a motor in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.

The Traffic Signal

1923

Garrett A. Morgan invented the traffic signal.

The Liquid Fuelled Rocket

1926

Robert H. Goddard launched the first successful liquid fuel rocket ever built.

Polio Vaccine

April 12 1955

Dr.Jonas Salk developed the Polio vaccine.

Culture, Literature, and Art

Of Plymouth Plantation

1651

Of Plymouth Plantation was a book written by William Bradford of things that happened in Plymouth.

New England Primer

1687

The New England Primer was the book millions of American children learned to read from. It was in constant use for over 150 years.

Phillis Wheatley

1773

Phillis Wheatley was the first black woman writer in America to have a book published.

The Blue-Backed Speller

1783

The American Spelling Book was written by Noah Webster. It has sold over 100 million copies.

The Star Spangled Banner

1814

During the Battle of Fort McHenry the nation's national anthem was written by an inspired man.

The McGuffy Reader

1836

William H. McGuffey wrote the McGuffey Reader. It has sold over 122 Million copies.

The Spirituals

1850

The Spirituals were songs that negro slaves would sing while working in the feilds.

Uncle Tom's Cabin

1852

Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about slaves in the south.

Buffalo Bill's Wild West

1883

The show was starred with Annie Oakly, Wild Bill Hickok, Sitting Bull, Cowboys, and american indians.

I Pledge Allegiance...

1892

The Pledge of Allegiance was published in a children's magazine at first. It was printed into a leaflet and soon every school had a flag and children were learning the pledge.

Marian Anderson

1939

Marian Anderson was one of the greatest opera singers of the age.

Things of Interest

The Wilderness Road

1775

Daniel Boone cleared the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky.

Let Freedom Ring!

July 4 1776

The Liberty Bell was rung in Philadelphia when the Declaration of Independence was read. On the bell was written, Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof.

Our First Capital

1789

New York City was the first capital of the United States.

Inauguration Day

April 30 1789

Washington was sworn in as the first president of the united states.

Erie Canal

1825

The Erie Canal was the first major man-made canal in the United States.

Forty-Niners

1849

In 1849 thousands of people flocked to California in search for gold. This was called the California Gold Rush.

The Underground Railroad

1850

Thousands of slaves fled along the Underground Railroad to freedom.

The Pony Express

1860

The Pony Express lasted only 19 months. It could get a a letter from the east coast to the west coast in 10 days.

The Gettysburg Address

November 19 1863

For two hours a man named Edward Everett spoke about the battle at gettysburg. Then President Lincoln stood up for his speech. He spook for less than three minutes with 10 direct sentences. Now we remember President Lincoln's speech, but Edward Everett's was not written down.

The President is Shot!

1865

The president was shot by John Wilkes Booth in Ford's Theatre.

The Transcontinental Railroad

May 10 1869

The transcontinental Railroad was finished at Promontory Point, Utah.

The Red Cross

1881

Clara Barton founded the American National Red Cross.

Oklahoma Land Rush

1889

The Oklahoma Land Rush was when thousands of Americans lined up along the borders of oklahoma to scramble over the border and claim their own part of Oklahoma.

The North Pole

April 6 1909

Robert Peary and Matthew Henson discovered the North Pole.

The Titanic

1912

The Titanic hit an iceburg and sunk on her maiden voyage, taking over 1,500 men, woman, and children down with her to the seabed.

The Panama Canal

1914

President Theodore Roosevelt built the Panama Canal.

Mary McLeod Bethune

1923

Mary McLeod Bethune devoted her life to ensure that black children had a good education.

The Great Depression

1929 - 1939

The Great Depression was when no one had any money, not even the government.

A Space Ship Explodes

January 28 1986

The Space Shuttle Challenger exploded 73 seconds after leaving the launch pad, killing all seven onboard.