Early Cold War

Main

CIA established

Sept 1947

The CIA has three activities: gather information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals; analyzing that information, along with intelligence gathered by other U.S. intelligence agencies, in order to provide national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers. The agency gan also be ordered to carry out or overseeing covert activities and some tactical operations by its own employees, by members of the U.S. military. Was helpful during Cuban Missle Crisis to deploy memebers to fight/ talk with the Cubans.

Korea War Begins

June 25, 1949

37,000 people die in the war.
President Truman announced to the nation and the world that America would intervene in the Korean conflict in order to prevent the conquest of an independent nation by communism and the conquer of Asia by communism.
Truman suggests that U.S. intervention in Korea might lead to open warfare between the United States and Russia after years of "cold war" because supposedly Soviets had given tacit approval to the invasion, which was carried out with Soviet-made tanks and weapons.
US military was desegregated

Successful Soviet Detonation of an Atomic Bomb

Sept 18, 1949

This events importance was that the US and the President relize that we are not on top anymore. Also President Truman to order development of the hydrogen bomb, a weapon theorized to be hundreds of times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Japan. This started a nuclear arms race witin the US. Another effect of this would be that the USSR could be able to attack any country they wanted with large force.

China Falls To Communism

October 1, 1949

The "fall" of mainland China to communism in 1949 led the United States to suspend diplomatic ties with the PRC for decades.
China becomes an ally with the USSR and helps them with there arms programs.
Joseph McCarthy, claimed that the State Department had gone "soft" on communism; more recklessly, McCarthy suggested that there were procommunist sympathizers in the department and this why China falled.
US and Chinese forces fight in Korean War which drives a wedge between the two countries.
UN refuses to seat the People's Republic of China

America Develops Hydrogen Bomb

Jan. 1950 - November 1, 1952

The test gave the United States a short-lived advantage in the nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union.
Soviets and US speed up there Arms Race.
The Soviet Union exploded a thermonuclear device the following year and by the late 1970s, seven nations had constructed hydrogen bombs.

US forces land in Inchon

September 15, 1950

UN casualties during the Inchon landings and subsequent battle for the city were 566 killed and 2,713 wounded. In the fighting the NKPA lost more than 35,000 killed and captured. As additional UN forces came ashore, they were organized into the US X Corps. Attacking inland, they advanced towards Seoul, which was taken on September 25, after brutal house-to-house fighting. The daring landing at Inchon, coupled with 8th Army's breakout from the Pusan Perimeter, threw the NKPA into a headlong retreat. UN troops quickly recovered South Korea and pressed into the north. This advance continued until late November when Chinese troops poured into North Korea causing UN forces to withdraw south.

China attacks, sending UN forces to 37th parallel

November 1950

US relations with China were unheard of for decades.
UN forces push back to 38th parallel

UN forces push Communist forces back to 38th Parallel

January 16, 1951

Cease-fire is signed with 6 months, with border at 38th parallel.
37,000 people were died in the war.

Death of Stalin

March 5, 1953

Power struggle occured but Nikita Khrushchev took control and was not as suspicious and cruel.
Khrushchev moved toward "peaceful co-existence" with US at Geneva conference.
Unrest exploded behind the "iron curtain"

CIA supports coup in Iran

Aug 1953

US deposed Shah that starved nation.
Ayatollah came back to power lead country into Islamic revolution in 1979.
Iran–United States hostage crisis in 1979

John Dulles announces massive retaliation

January 12, 1954

US will now rely heavily on Nuclear Weapons.
Reconvinces the USSR is out to get the US.
US troops will permenantly be in Asia from now forward to protect against threats such as Communism.
US will now retaliate in much in greater force in the event of an attack but at a bearable cost of lives and money.

CIA suppoorts coup in Guatamala

June 1954

Guatemala had been saved from "communist imperialism" because of the success of the coup. The overthrow of Arbenz had added "a new and glorious chapter to the already great tradition of the American states." Many Guatemalans came to have a different perspective. The new regime rounded up thousands of suspected communists, and executed hundreds of prisoners. Labor unions, which had flourished since 1944, were crushed, and United Fruit's lands were restored. Castillo Armas, however, did not long enjoy his success. He was assassinated in 1957. Guatemalan politics then degenerated into a series of coups and countercoups, coupled with brutal repression of the country's people.

Gamal Nassar of Egypt recognizes PR of China, opens talks with USSR

May 1956

Eisenhower withdrew its offer to fund the construction of a damb on the Nile River at Aswan.
US, Egypt relations falter a little

President Nassar attempts to nationalize Suez Canal

July 1956

Britian and France sieze Suez Canal
Eisenhower refused to supply Britain, France, and Israel w/ US oil

Polish revolt against Soviets

October 1956

Polish win greater control of gov't
Polish did not want to leave Warsaw Pact, Soviets allowed this revolt.

Hungarians revolt against Soviets

October 1956 - November 1956

encourged by Khrushchev words of "peaceful co-existence" and Poland's example
Khrushchev responded brutally, sending troops and tanks to crush revolution
This action suprised the world and added a higher level of hostility to international relations

Britian and France sieze Suez Canal

Nov 1956

Eisenhower refused to supply Britain, France, and Israel w/ US oil

Eisenhower announces "Eisenhower doctrine"

Jan 1957

response to Soviet influence in Middle East and elsewhere
US would use force to help any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism.
Eisenhower used doctrine in 1958 to justify sending to Lebenon to put down a revolt against its pro-American government.

USSR Launches Sputnik

Oct 4, 1957

US not ahead anymore
US scared of Russia nuclear threat because if USSR can fire a rocket into space then it can fire a rocket toward US soil.
NASA developed
Congress approved of National Defense Education Act authorizing money for loans to enable High School and College graduates to continue their education in science