1.Redundant soldiers and the Green Standard Army were dismissed.
2. The imperial miltary service exam was abolished.
3.New military academies were established, and officers were sent aboard for training.
4. The Bureau of Military Traning was set up in Beijing in 1903 to organize and train the New Army, which was also to be equipped with more pwerful weapons.
1. Universities were set up in every province, secondary schools in every prefecture and primary schools in every county.
2. A modern school system was introduced with a new mixed curriculum.
3. The eight-legged essay was no long used in the imperial civil service exam from 1902 onwards. The whole imperial civil service exam was even abolished in 1905. (since they suppressed the freedom of thought among intellectuals )
4. Thousands of students were sent to study aboard.
1.11 new ministries were to created to replace the Six boards.
2. Five minsters were sent to Japan, the US, Britain, Germany and Russia to study their constitution.
3. In 1908, the outline of the Constitution was issued and a nine-year programme of constitution preparation was announced.
4. A cabinet was set up in 1941, while a parliament was to meet within 5 years.
5. Provinicial assemblies were set up in 1909 with the introduction of an electoral system, and a national assembly was set up in 1910.
A. The outline of constitution gave people freedom of speech, writing, publication, assemly and association within the limits of law.
B. The National Assembly (discussion of bills and budgets) was the forerunner of a parliament.
C. Election and provincial assemblies were formed. Provinvial legislature was gradually developed.
First step towards modernization
1. National Crisis ( Boxer Uprising and Boxer Protocol led to a great humiliation and the ending of Qing dynasty)
2. Increased revolutionary activities (People lost their confidence in the gov't and the increased in anti-Manzu revolts and revolutionary groups, reforms helped to win over people's support and stop revolutionary activities)
3. Growth of regional authorities ( Neutrality agreement of the southeast provinces and the foreign powers posted threats to the Qing gov't. Reforms helped to consolidate its rule )
4. Success of Meiji Modernization ( Example of Japan by introducing constitutional monarchy and Westernization led to its success. Qing officials believe that constitution could help to prolong the Manzu rile and control foreign aggression and internal revolts)
1. Manzu- Han intermarriage was allowed from 1902 onwards.
2. Woman were set free from foot-binding from 1902.
3. Laws were made to ban opium-smoking in 1906. (progressive move)
1. Regulations were developed for different kinds of business.
2. Industrial and mining enterprises were set up. State and private banks were opened.
3. Over 10000 miles of railway were constructed in 10 years.
4. A national budget was worked out in 1910.
5. A railway nationalization plan was announced in 1911.
Enterprise owners can do business according to the law, and private property was protected by law.
A legal and economic modernization
i. Insincere reforms
9 years was needed for constitutional preparation. It formed a new cabinet in 1911, but 8 out of 13 ministers were Manzu and 7 of them were even Manzu princes(Royal Cabinet).
The government was very corrupt and inefficient which led to the failure of the reforms. It actually gave the officials opportunities to be involved in corruption.
iii. Insufficient funds
Financial difficulties which included the paying of the large amounts of indemnities. E.g. (only the army received modern training, not the navy, school construction was not completed, the Qing government allowed local authories to raise their own funds for reform, which led to different kinds of additional taxes and charges. People suffered alot)
iv. Lack of capable leaders
The Late Qing Reform was not led by capable leaders. Some of them died, left or either were dismissed.
v. Lack of popular support
Anti-Qing uprising staged by the revolutionary groups. People lost their confidence in the consitutional experiment and turned to support the revolutionaries instead. They lost their hope when the imperial civil exam was abolished.
1. Establishment of republican and constitutional government
Founding the first great republic in Chinese history by overthrowing the Qing Dynasty and the monarchy. Since monarchy had existed in China for more than 2000 years, its abolition was an important step towards political modernization.
Adoption of Constitution, after handing over the post of provisional president to Yuan, Sun adopted the Provisional Constitution to prevent the setting of dictatorship. It peomoted the separation of power among the legislative, executive and judicial branches. the rights of petition, ligation, examiation and election were also protected. Laid foundation for further political modernization.
Abolition of ethnic rule
Politics were controlled by the Manzu in the past. Han people didn't have political pwer. The reforms were mainly for the prolonging of the Manzu rule. The talents of other ethnic groups were not used.
After the founding the the ROC, Sun promoted "five-group harmony" among the Han, the Manzu, the mongols, the Hui and the Tibetan.
Linking Chinese civilization to Western civilization
Greforian calendar was adopted, pigtails were removed, freed women from foot-binding, change of address from LaoYe, Da ren to mister and gentlemen, change koutou to bow, replace sedan chairs with rickshaws, protect and dree slaves, ban opium-smoking and slave trade, universial education, change in clothing. Women social status improved.
Limitations of revolution
1. Failure to end the autocractic tradition
China didn't move quickly along the path to political modernization because of its deep-root autocractic tradition. YUan and the Beiyang warlords took power. They attempted to restore monarchy. Frequent wars among the warlords hindered the progress of economic and cultural modernization.
Situation in China before the outbreak of revolution
i. Incompetent government
ii. Support for revolutionaries
iii. Resistance of the gentry
Outbreak of revolution
May 11, the Qing government announced its plan of railway nationalisation and took over the construction rights of the private Sichuan-Hankous and Gurangdong-Hankou lines. Then, it reached an agreement with a group of foregin banks to sell them those construction rights. This sparked of the Railway Protection Movement in Hubei and other provinces. The movement in Sichuan later developed into armed struggles. The Qing government therefore sent troops from hubei to Sichuan, and the defence of Hubei became inadequate as a result.
1. Promotion of new ideas
2. Prevailing climate fir democracy
3. Diplomatic humiliation
1. Rejection of traditional ethics and recognition of the value of the individual
It pushed the New Cultural Movement to new heights. The New Cultural Movement promoted democracy and science. Intellectuals such as Chen Duxiu, Hu Shi and Lu Xun joined together as a group to promote new ideas and attack autocracy and superstition, uphold new morality and criticize the traditional ethics, and advocate new literature and oppose the eight-legged essay. Liberation of thoughts began.
People had the right to oppose unreasonable things and question the validity of traditional ethics. Anti-feudal and anti-superstitious ideas were also widely promoted in society. Women liberation and value of individuals were recognized.
Helped to speed up China's development into a modern nation.
Decline of Confucianism and the introduction of the new ideas into China
Intellectuals believed h\that Confucianism was the root of ignorance and backwardness, the lack of democracy and freedom in China. Lu Xun accused Confucian ethics as "man-eating" and created the slogan "down with Confucianism."
in 1920s, the ministry of education ordered schools to discontinue the spring and autumn rituals of worshiping Confucius. Confucius was no longer the official creed. It freed people from traditional ways of thinking and introducing them to new ideas, clearing obstacles for China to move along the path
to the modernization.
Popular participation in public affairs
In the past, the royal family and government officials attended to the state affairs, after the MFM, people realized that they had to actively participate in politics in order to save China. People joined various patriotic or national movements, an founded newspapers and magazines to keep a watchful eye on the government. They also formed different groups to fight for their own rights.
Promotion of the idea nationalism, students joined the Whampoa Academy founded by Sun to fight against warlords. mass consciousness was also awakened. Politics was no long controlled by a small group of people.
Universal education and sexual equality
In 1921, the Project method aimed at helping students to achieve their full potential and promoting self-learning. In 1922, the ministry of education reformed the education system, emphasizing life education and starting clearly that girls and women would enjoy opportunities of school education. To improve women's social status and preserve their dignity, stopped slave trade and foot-binding.
The vernacular language, (plain language) was widely used in newspaper and magazines, replacing classical language. Literature had the function of reflecting social realities. Employed new literary forms to criticize the old society.
Emphasis on science and scientific thinking
Rationalism and objectivity became highly valued. Historians began t examine the authenticity of written history with the help of archaeological findings, studied more objectively the success and failure of historical figures. Science in China also made remarkable advances. As people regarded the pursuit of science as the best way to enrich the nations, Western science was held in increasingly high regard. The social status of scientists also improved greatly.