The Israeli and Palestinian Conflict

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UN Partition Plan

1947

The UN general assembly meets and votes to partition British Mandate Palestinian into Jewish and Arab sectors. Soon after the adoption of the resolution, on the 29th of November 1947 fighting breaks out and civil war spreads.

The Suez Canal

1956

Egypt blocked the Straits of Tiran to Israel, therefore blocking Israel's access to the Red Sea.

Israel Suprise Attack

June 5 1967

Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt due to belief that it's neighbours were preparing for war. Israel also attacked Syria and Jordan, defeating all of them within 6 days.

Israel took control of:
-Jerusalem
-Sinai (from Egypt)
-Golan Heights (from Syria)

Resolution 242 was passed

22 November 1967

Resolution 242 was essentially a plan that was an exchange of land that Israel had conquered from the Arab states for peace in the Middle East.

In the plan, it was said that Israel would give back land that it occupied in exchange for peace with surrond Arab states. But what the resolution didn't specify was how much land would be returned.

Israel maintained control of certain portions of the occupied land to ensure they could defend the Israeli state against future attacks.

The Camp David Accords (Jimmy Carter-president)

September 17 1978

US president, Jimmy Carter, invited Egyptian President, Anwar Sadat and the Israeli Prime Minister, Menachem Begin to Camp David for 12-day long peace talks.

However there was two accords. The first one, was a framework for peace in the Middle East; agreeing about a treaty between Israel and Egypt as well as other neighbouring countries. The most delicate part of the agreement was on the Palestinian; it aimed to set up the West Bank and Gaza as self governing places. The Palestinians eventually backed out of the agreement.

The second, in 1979, was the Camp David framework for Israel and Egypt to have peace; it was made after Israel removed itself from the Sinai. It was the 1st recognition of Israel by a major Arab country.

The talks are probably the most successful negotiations in the whole peace process. The treaty still stands today and strengthens Israel's position.

President of Egypt Asassinated

October 6, 1981

President Anwat Sadat led Egypt in the War of 1973 to re-gain Egyptian territory lost to Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a short time, the wider Arab World.

After he was in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Egypt–Israel Peace Treaty; which won him the Nobel Peace prize. That also made him unpopular with some Arabs and resulted in a temporary suspension of Egypt's membership in the Arab League; eventually leading to his assassination.

The First Intifada

08/12/1987 - 1991

The First Intifada was an uprising by the Palestinians against the Israelis in terms of jobs, and living conditions; also to demand independence. Palestinians held boycotts, demonstrations and strikes; they also had rock throwing and gasoline bombs. Israeli forces and Palestinian forces were both involved. In the end, the Palestinians didn't achieve freedom, but the Intifada helped in moving along the process leading to the Oslo agreement.

Casualties:
-about over 400 Israelis killed
-about over 1500 Palestinians killed
-A Swedish brand of Save the Children guessed that 23,600-29,900 children needed medical treatment for their beating injuries in the first 2 years of the intifada.

The Madrid Conference

October 30, 1991 - November 2, 1991

A conference co-sponsored by the US and Soviet Union. It was a follow up to the Israel-Egypt peace treaty made to encourage other Arab countries to sign their own agreements with Israel.

Attended:
-Jordan
-Lebanon
-Syria
-Israel
-Egypt
-the Palestinians reped by a joint delegation without the PLO

The conference led to a Israel-Jordan peace treaty; it's main achievement was Arab countries openly negotiating with Israel which then led to secret talks and the Oslo agreements followed.

The Oslo Agreement

1993

The Oslo agreements were for a direct agreement between Israel and the PLO It was between Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat and Israel’s Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin; important so the 2 countries could come to recognition of the others' right to exist.

Peace agreement

1994

Israel and Jordan signed a peace agreement in 1994

Camp David Summit (Bill Clinton-president)

2000

Bill Clinton wanted to the remaining issues including borders, Jerusalem and refugees.

Who:
Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak and PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat

The base issue was that maximum Israel offered was less than the minimum the Palestinians could accept; in the end there was no agreement though the plans were really detailed.

Israels offer:
-The Gaza Strip
-A large part of the West Bank
-Extra land from the Negev desert
-Proposed Islamic guardianship of key cities in Jerusalem
-Donating to a fund for Palestinian refugees

Although they kept a major settlement blocks and most of East Jerusalem.

The Palestinians wanted to move back the lines of 1967 to their original state. They also offered Israel rights over the Jewish part of the Old City; in return they wanted recognition of the "rights of return" for Palestinian refugees.

Taba

2001

Although President Clinton was about to retire from presidency, he proposed a "bridging agreement" and set up talks in Washington D.C., Cairo, and Taba. The differences previously faced weren't resolved although they were narrowed. Israeli negotiators accepted the idea of East Jerusalem being Palestine's capital.

In the end, they couldn't reach an agreement on everything. The Israeli PM, Ehud Barak, said that Israel couldn't commit a subsequent government to ideas coming from the talks.

Saudi Peace plan

2002

Presented at an Arab summit in Beirut in March 2002 the Saudi Peace plan went back to the multi-lateral approach and showed the Arab world a a whole wanting to end this dispute.

-Israel revert back to the lines of June 1967
-A Palestinian state would be set up in the West Bank and Gaza; there would be a "just solution" of the refugee issue
-Arab countries would recognise Israel

The plan was re-endorsed by another Arab summit in Riyadh in 2007. The strength in the plan was the support from the Arab countries to a two-state solution. The weak point was that the countries would still have to discuss the same issues already previously failed on so far.

The Roadmap

2003

A plan drawn up by the "Quartet" - the United States, Russia, the European Union and the United Nations suggesting how a settlement might be approached.

It led up to a statement in June 2002 by President George W Bush, the only US president to to call for a Palestinian state. It presented a periodic timetable putting the institution of security before a final settlement; made to create confidence, leading to a final talk.

Phase 1: Both sides would issue statements supporting the two-state solution, the Palestinians would end violence, act against "all those engaged in terror", draw up a constitution, hold elections and the Israelis would stop settlement activities and act with military restraint

Phase 2: Would see the creation, at an international conference, of a Palestinian state with "provisional borders"

Phase 3: Final agreement talks

The roadmap wasn't implemented and its timetable called for final agreement to be reached in 2005. It has been overtaken by events but is a reference point for negotiators.

The Geneva Accord

2003

An informal agreement was announced in December 2003 by Israeli and Palestinian figures - Yossi Beilin, one of the architects of Oslo, on the Israeli side, and former Palestinian Information Minister Yasser Abed Rabbo on the other. The concept of roadmaps was reversed. Growth of security and confidence pave the way for a political agreement, and puts the agreement first, which is then designed to produce security and peace.

The main compromise would be for the Palestinians to give up their "right of return" in exchange for almost the whole West Bank; but a few could return.

Israel would give up major settlements, like Ariel, but keep one closer to the border. With swaps of land in Israel for any taken in the West Bank.
Palestinians would have West Jerusalem as their capital but Israel would have sovereignty over the Western Wall in the Old City.

In addition, another unofficial agreement was drawn up by a former head of the Israeli Shin Bet internal security service Ami Ayalon and a former PLO representative in Jerusalem Sari Nusseibeh; envisioning a reoccurrence of the 1967 borders, an open city of Jerusalem and an end to the Palestinian claim to a right of return to former homes.

The Gaza Strip

2005

Israel removed all of its settlements from the Gaza Strip as a sign of good faith. They also gave much control, minus such the border, airspace and coastline to the Palestinian government.

Annapolis

2007

Us President GWB hosted a conference aimed at relaunching the peace process.

In attendance:
-Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
-Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas
-Officials from the peace-making Quartet
-More than a dozen Arab countries, including Saudi Arabia and Syria

This was seen as significant as those countries don't officially recognise Israel. The Palestinian group Hamas, that had won parliamentary elections and taken control of the Gaza Strip wasn't there and announced it wouldn't abide by anything decided at the conference.

A collaborative effort was made by the Israeli and Palestinian leaders to engage in negotiations with the goal of a full peace deal by the end of 2008. They agreed that they wouldn't get the ball rolling on the plan till confidence building measures were set in place.

Regular meetings took place between Mr Olmert and Mr Abbas; which are said to have made good progress with border issues but the talks came to an unexpected stop with Israel's military offensive in Gaza in late 2008.