History Timeline

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Open Door Policy

1887

American Statement that the government did not want colonies in China, but favored free trade.

Industrialism

An economic and social system based on the development of large-scale industries and marked by the production of large quantities of inexpensive manufactured goods and the concentration of employment in urban factories.

Bessemer Process

1855

The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron prior to the open hearth furnace. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855. The process was independently discovered in 1851 by William Kelly.[1][2] The process had also been used outside of Europe for hundreds of years, but not on an industrial scale.[3] The key principle is removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air being blown through the molten iron. The oxidation also raises the temperature of the iron mass and keeps it molten.

Reconstruction

1865

Program implemented by the federal government to repair damage to the South caused by Civil War and restore the southern states to the Union

Transcontinental Railroad

1870

rail link between the eastern and the western United States

Standard Oil Company

1870

Standard Oil was an American oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world.[6] Its controversial history as one of the world's first and largest multinational corporations ended in 1911, when the United States Supreme Court ruled that Standard was an illegal monopoly.

Homestead Strike

1892

The Homestead Strike was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. The battle was the second largest and one of the most serious disputes in U.S. labor history second only to the Battle of Blair Mountain.

Gilded Age

Post-Reconstruction era which had facade of prosperity

Imperialism

The policy by which strong nations extended their political, military, and economic control over weaker countries.

Seward's Folly

1867

U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward signs a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska for $7 million. Despite the bargain price of roughly two cents an acre, the Alaskan purchase was ridiculed in Congress and in the press as "Seward's folly," "Seward's icebox," and President Andrew Johnson's "polar bear garden."

Annexation of Hawaii

1893

In 1897, the treaty for annexation was declined only 46 senators in favor of the treaty less than 2/3 of the majority needed for approval.

This all changed when the U.S.S. Maine in February of 1898 exploded, causing the U. S. to start the Spanish-American War. A need for a mid-Pacific fueling location to be critical, the Hawaiian Islands were the optimum choice. On July 21, 1898 the resolution had passed and the Hawaiian Islands were officially annexed by the United States.

Spanish-American War

1898

The immediate origins of the 1898 Spanish-American War began with the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894. The American tariff, which put restrictions on sugar imports to the United States, severely hurt the economy of Cuba, which was based on producing and selling sugar.

Panama Canal

1914

The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade.

Progressive Era

An era where people believed that new ideas and honest, efficient government could bring about social justice.

13th, 14th, 15th Amendments

1865

13th Amendment - abolished slavery. 14th Amendment - the Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses. 15th Amendment - voting rights regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Square Deal

1904

The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection.

Model T

1908

A automobile manufactured by Henry Ford to be affordable on the mass market.

NAACP

1909

Stands for "The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People." Founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve political and civil rights for African Americans.

Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire

1911

The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was one of the deadliest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York and resulted in the fourth highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history. It was also one of the deadliest disasters that occurred in New York City – after the burning of the General Slocum on June 15, 1904 – until the destruction of the World Trade Center 90 years later. The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers, who died from the fire, smoke inhalation, or falling or jumping to their deaths.

New Freedom

1912

The New Freedom comprises the campaign speeches and promises of Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 presidential campaign. They constituted the reforms promoted by Wilson. They called for less government, but in practice as president he added new controls such as the Federal Reserve System and the Clayton Antitrust Act.

16th Amendment

1913

he ratification of the amendment overturned an 1895 U.S. Supreme Court decision that had ruled a 2 percent federal flat tax on incomes over $4,000 unconstitutional

World War 1

"The Great War" sparked by the assination of archduke Franz Ferdinand. Included the Allies (Great Britain, France, Italy, and Russia) versus the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria). Ended with he Treaty of Versailles.

Treaty of Versailles

1918

The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War One had ended in 1918 and in the shadow of the Russian Revolution and other events in Russia.

Roaring Twenties

The 1920s regarded as a boisterous era of prosperity, fast cars, jazz, speakeasies, and wild youth.

Harlem Renaissance

1918

Period during the 1920s in which African American novelists, poets, and artists celebrated their culture.

19th Amendment

1920

prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex.

Radio Station KDKA

1920

a radio station licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Created by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on November 2, 1920, it is the world's first commercial radio station, a distinction that has also been challenged by other stations, although it has claimed to be the "world's first commercially licensed radio station". KDKA is currently owned and operated by CBS Radio and its studios are located at the combined CBS Radio Pittsburgh facility on Foster Drive in Green Tree; its transmitter is in Allison Park.

18th Amendment

1920

established the prohibition of alcoholic beverages in the United States by declaring the production, transport and sale of (though not the consumption or private possession of) alcohol illegal.

WWII

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million people serving in military units from over 30 different countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.

Holoocaust

1933

The mass murder or genocide of six million Jews in WWII.

Munich Pact

1938

The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of Czechoslovakia's areas along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined. The agreement was negotiated at a conference held in Munich, Germany, among the major powers of Europe without the presence of Czechoslovakia.

Pearl Harbor

1941

A Naval Base that was attacked by the Imperial Japanese Navy.

Japanese Internment Camps

1942

Japanese American internment was the World War II internment in "War Relocation Camps" of about 110,000 people of Japanese heritage who lived on the Pacific coast of the United States. The U.S. government ordered the internment in 1942, shortly after the Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.[2][3] The internment of Japanese Americans was applied unequally as a geographic matter: all who lived on the West Coast were interned, while in Hawaii, where 150,000-plus Japanese Americans comprised over one-third of the population, only 1,200 to 1,800 were interned. Sixty-two percent of the internees were American citizens.

Battle of Midway

1942

he most important naval battle of the Pacific Campaign of World War II. Between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor, and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea, the United States Navy decisively defeated an Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) attack against Midway Atoll, inflicting irreparable damage on the Japanese fleet. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare."

Battle of the Bulge

1944

The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive campaign launched through the densely forested Ardennes region of Wallonia in Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front toward the end of World War II in Europe. The surprise attack caught the Allied forces completely off guard and became the costliest battle in terms of casualties for the United States, whose forces bore the brunt of the attack, during all of World War II. It also severely depleted Germany's war-making resources and was the country's final offensive operation of the war.

V-E Day

1945

Public holiday that was created to mark the victory of WWII

Atomic Bombs

1945

an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The atomic bomb test released the same amount of energy as approximately 20,000 tons of TNT.

United Nations

1945

an international organization whose stated aims include promoting and facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, civil rights, civil liberties, political freedoms, democracy, and the achievement of lasting world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.

Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s.

Black Tuesday

1929

The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday[1] and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began in late October 1929 and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout.[2] The crash signaled the beginning of the 10-year Great Depression that affected all Western industrialized countries[3] and did not end in the United States until the onset of American mobilization for World War II at the end of 1941.

Dust Bowl

1930

The Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion

New Deal

1933

The New Deal was a series of domestic economic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They involved presidential executive orders or laws passed by Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were in response to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call the "3 Rs": Relief, Recovery, and Reform. That is Relief for the unemployed and poor; Recovery of the economy to normal levels; and Reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.[

Fireside Chats

1933

The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio addresses given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944

Second New Deal

1935

he Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s. The phenomenon was caused by severe drought combined with a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion

Court Packing

1937

A legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court. Roosevelt's purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional.

Lend-Lease Act

1941

Law that started a program under which the United States of America supplied the United Kingdom, the USSR, Republic of China, Free France, and other Allied nations with materiel between 1941 and 1945.

Bataan Death March

1942

the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60-80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. All told, approximately 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 100-650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell. Death tolls vary, especially amongst Filipino POWs, because historians cannot determine how many prisoners blended in with the civilian population and escaped. The march route started from Mariveles, Bataan to San Fernando, Pampanga. From San Fernando, survivors were loaded to a box train and they were brought to Camp O'Donell in Capas, Tarlac.

D-Day

1944

landing operations of the Allied invasion of Normandy, in Operation Overlord, during World War II.