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panama canal

1819 - 1903

Panama was part of the federation and country of Colombia but when Colombia rejected United States plans to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama, the U.S. supported a revolution that led to the independence

bessemer process

1851 - 1855

The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855

trabscontinental railroad

1862 - Present

the Pacific Railroad Act chartered the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific Railroad Companies, and tasked them with building a transcontinental railroad that would link the United States from east to west. Over the next seven years, the two companies would race toward each other from Sacramento, California on the one side and Omaha, Nebraska on the other, struggling against great risks before they met at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869.

13th amendment

1865 - Present

declared that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction."

sewards folly

1865 - 1867

U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward signs a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Alaska for $7 million. Despite the bargain price of roughly two cents an acre, the Alaskan purchase was ridiculed in Congress and in the press as "Seward's folly," "Seward's icebox," and President Andrew Johnson's "polar bear garden."

14th amendment

1868 - Present

The amendment grants citizenship to "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" which included former slaves who had just been freed after the Civil War. The amendment had been rejected by most Southern states but was ratified by the required three-fourths of the states.

15th amendment

1870 - Present

the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."

homestead strike

1892 - Present

was one of the most bitterly fought industrial disputes in the history of U.S. labor. The Homestead Steel Works, located southeast of Pittsburgh, was an important segment of Andrew Carnegie's empire

spanish american war

1898 - 1900

ended Spain's colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere and secured the position of the United States as a Pacific power. U.S. victory in the war produced a peace treaty that compelled the Spanish to relinquish claims on Cuba, and to cede sovereignty over Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States.

open door policy

1899 - 1900

the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity. The statement was issued in the form of circular notes dispatched by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay to Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, and Russia. The Open Door policy was received with almost universal approval in the United States

square deal

1901 - 1902

It embraced Roosevelt’s idealistic view of labour, citizenship, parenthood, and Christian ethics. Roosevelt first used the term following the settlement of a mining strike in 1902 to describe the ideal of peaceful coexistence between big business and labour unions.

standard oil

1904 - 1905

The History of the Standard Oil Company was an exposé of the Standard Oil Company, run at that time by oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, the richest figure in America's history. Originally serialized in 19 parts in McClure's magazine, the book was a seminal example of muckraking

Model T

1908 - 1927

It put America on wheels, supercharged the nation's economy and transformed the landscape in ways unimagined when the first Tin Lizzy rolled out of the factory.

NAACP

1909 - 1910

the NAACP is the nation's oldest and largest civil rights organization. From the ballot box to the classroom, the thousands of dedicated workers, organizers, leaders and members who make up the NAACP continue to fight for social justice for all Americans.

new freedom

1912 - 1914

The New Freedom sought to achieve this vision by attacking what Wilson called the Triple Wall of Privilege — the tariff, the banks, and the trusts.

18th amendment

1919 - 1933

the U.S. Constitution banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol

19th amendment

1919 - 1920

the 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest

KDKA radio

1920 - 1930

is a radio station licensed to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. Created by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation on November 2, 1920, it is the world's first commercial radio station, a distinction that has also been challenged by other stations

Harlem renaissance

1920 - 1930

the Harlem Renaissance was a literary, artistic, and intellectual movement that kindled a new black cultural identity. Its essence was summed up by critic and teacher Alain Locke in 1926 when he declared that through art,

Imperialism

the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies

pregressive era

Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to America. Progressivism began as a social movement and grew into a political movement. The early progressives rejected Social Darwinism. In other words, they were people who believed that the problems society faced poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare

gilded age

Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to America. Progressivism began as a social movement and grew into a political movement. The early progressives rejected Social Darwinism. In other words, they were people who believed that the problems society faced poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare

1876 Rutherford B. Hayes is elected president

1877 Railroad workers strike across United States

1880 James A. Garfield is elected president

1881 Garfield is assassinated; Chester A. Arthur becomes president

1883 Congress passes Pendleton Act

1884 Grover Cleveland is elected president

1888 Benjamin Harrison is elected president

roaring twenties

Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to America. Progressivism began as a social movement and grew into a political movement. The early progressives rejected Social Darwinism. In other words, they were people who believed that the problems society faced poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare

1876 Rutherford B. Hayes is elected president

1877 Railroad workers strike across United States

1880 James A. Garfield is elected president

1881 Garfield is assassinated; Chester A. Arthur becomes president

1883 Congress passes Pendleton Act

1884 Grover Cleveland is elected president

1888 Benjamin Harrison is elected president

WW 1

Progressivism is the term applied to a variety of responses to the economic and social problems rapid industrialization introduced to America. Progressivism began as a social movement and grew into a political movement. The early progressives rejected Social Darwinism. In other words, they were people who believed that the problems society faced poverty, violence, greed, racism, class warfare

1876 Rutherford B. Hayes is elected president

1877 Railroad workers strike across United States

1880 James A. Garfield is elected president

1881 Garfield is assassinated; Chester A. Arthur becomes president

1883 Congress passes Pendleton Act

1884 Grover Cleveland is elected president

1888 Benjamin Harrison is elected president