Post-War Canada-1945-2000-Timeline Assignment

Main

Social Safety New

1930

The social safety net is helping out Provinces not have poverty by putting many things in place to stop it. Like bringing in old age pension for retired people who can no longer work but still earn money to get by month to month. Healthcare to take care of people in Canada so everyone is healthy. Unemployment cheques so people who have no jobs or just lost there have money to live off of until they find a new job. Insurance for houses, cars and for people. Also welfare for people who do not have the money to live they get money from the government each month to keep living.

CRTC and CBC

1932

The CRTC or the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission was established in 1968. The CBC or the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation was established in 1932. The CRTC was to regulate Canadian broadcasting because many television programs were American so Canada wanted to keep there identity and also show Canadian shows as well. The CBC was for radio and television, to keep Canadian culture.

CD Howe

1935 - 1957

Howe was a Cabinet Minister for Canada. He was involved with the creations of the Trans-Canada Airline, the CBC, and the National Harbour board. Also responsible for the CNR creation, nuclear industry and Trans-Canada pipeline during his career.

Mackenzie King

10/23/1935 - 11/15/1948

King was the Prime Minister and was the leader of the Liberals. He was the one to see Canada as a middle power. When the UN was founded King helped found it. He made the alliances with the United States during the Cold War saying they will help each other out if something goes wrong. Also he was the Prime Minister who had to deal with all the accusations and actual espionage.

David Suzuki

1936

Suzuki is famous for the work he does with the environment. During World War II his family was placed into Japanese Internment Camps. During his stay he found a love for nature and a want to protect the environment. He is a big contributor to awareness about the environment and what people can do to protect it.

Padlock Law

03/24/1937

It was an act to protect the Provinces against Communist propaganda. With the act the Attorney General had power to persecute anyone who seemed suspicious. The main people targeted with possible Communist, people who are for sure Communists and any odd looking foreigners. The Attorney General could bring anyone into a trial without charging. He also could take and destroy Communist propaganda and get people or groups to stop publishing the material.

Entertainment

1940

Entertainment becoming very popular in this era. Many people were listening to music, watching movies, going to ballets. Going to opera and for teens television was a big part in entertainment.

Creation of the UN

01/01/1942

The UN or United Nations was a organization worldwide that would stop another major global conflict. It is collective security like the League of Nations but more powerful. The UN had to deal with difficult nations that did not want to cooperate. They had 3 ways to deal with them which were condemning them, economic sanctions by getting people to stop trading with them, and as a last resort to use military force. There was the security council who had to maintain the peace with everyone. The only 5 permanent are Britain, France, the US, Russia and China. There is also 10 non-permanent member who get rotated through to voice there opinions. For children there is UNICEF which is a branch of the UN.

Agencies of the UN

1942

-Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
-International Civil Organization (ICAO)
-International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)
-International Labor Organization (ILO)
-International Maritime Organization (IMO)
-International Monetary Fund (IMF)
-International Telecommunication Union (ITU)
-United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)
-United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
-Universal Postal Union (UPU)
-World Bank Group
-World Health Organization (WHO)
-World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
-World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
-World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)
These are all linked to Canada because Canada is apart of the UN and all of these agencies are accessible for anyone.

Tommy Douglas

1944 - 1961

Douglas was the one to introduce Universal Healthcare into Canada. He was the Premier of Saskatchewan and created automobile insurance. He lessened Canada's dependence on agriculture and created the labour legislation. Also he brought in the crown corporation act.

IMF

1944

The International Monetary Fund or the IMF. The purpose is to level out the worlds economy. To help countries who are in serious debt and to promote the international economy. Canada is linked to the IMF because it it is a international program set to help everyone not just specific countries.

Duplessis

08/08/1944 - 09/07/1959

Duplessis was the Premier of Quebec. He was a powerful leader, he was also apart of the Union Nationale. He did not like trade unions, and did not want Quebec to change and separate from Canada.

Economic Disparity

1945 - 2000

There was many economic disparities between the natives and Canadians. There was a large income gap. The Canadians would make quite a bit more money. The Aboriginals had no right and very few resources. Also they did not get to own there own land, the Cnadian government owned it

Superpower

1945

At the beginning of the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union were the superpowers because they held the worlds power. They were at the top of the food chain and untouchable. If for any reason they went to war against each other it would turn out to be nuclear. Canada is linked to this because they had strong ties with the US and would back them up going into most fights.

Role of Aboriginals

1945

The AANDC or the Role of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. To improve Canadian society and the economy. also to help develop Canada into the country it is today and to have good links to the government.

Middle Power

1945

The Soviet Union and the United States were the superpowers and Canada was seen as a middle power. Canada had power but not as much as the superpowers held. During the Cold War the world was split, people would hold lots of power or next to nothing. With middle power there could be a common ground between powers. To fix the worlds power Trudeau promoted Canada to be the worlds middle power.

Globalization

1945

Giant networks for business, communication and culture. When the internet was created it made it easier because all business and work can be done on-line. With globalization it could easily raise the living standards in the world. Big corporations could help out third world countries by creating jobs for them. One giant economic crisis could wreak globalization because everyone would be connected. If something major goes on in one area of the world it would cause a chain reaction of events. Also it could destroy cultures because everyone would be lumped together. Globalization is good for Canada because it could help them out even more, it is already a have country and it could make it even better to live in Canada.

Multiculturalism

1945 - 2000

Having Canada become very diverse and more accepting of the different cultures. In the 1980's 40% of the population in Canada was made up of other people than the British and French. Canada was branching out and becoming even more diverse than it was before. There was many large waves of immigration being the main cause for multiculturalism.

Policies and Acts

1945 - 2000

Some of the policies and acts are the immigration control, only allowing specific people into Canada. The Chinese immigration act controlling and only allowing some Chinese into Canada yearly. In 1950 allowing the government to deport Canadian citizens who were born in Canada but with a different nationality that French or English. In the 1950's Germans were no longer viewed as the enemy. 1959 letting people enter the country even thought they are ill which goes against old policies not letting unhealthy people in the county. By 1970 there was 10 million immigrant in Canada. In 1997 refugees with no official government documents could become residents of Canada.

Refugees

1945 - 2000

Since the beginning of NATO Canadians have been going on missions to help out refugees. Canadian citizens could sponsor orphans, brothers, sisters, nephews and nieces that were in third world countries. Canada letting Polish refugees enter Canada for somewhere to live. Hungarians leaving there county to seek refugee in Canada. Also handicapped,Tibetan, Vietnamese, Cambodian refugees seeking help in Canada where Canada took in people in serious need for many reasons.

Gouzenko and Espionage

09/05/1945

In the cold war there was a major fear of espionage in Canada. Gouzenko had top secret information about Soviet spy ring in the Government, Canadian military, National Research Council, External Affairs, in Munitions, British High Commission and the Atomic Energy Research. Originally no one would believe him. He went to newspapers the police and no one cared until Soviets broke into his house then the police would hear him out. In 1946 the police found spies apart of the ring and were going to trial and eventually placed in jail. There was said to be spies in Canada but also in the US.

Economic Disparity

1946

To have a major income inequality between the rich and the poor. Also the differences in distributions of wealth.

Baby Boom

1946 - 1965

It is the increase of births after the war. People on average would have 3 to 4 children. Before the war birth rates were very low because in the depression people could not afford children or even to look after themselves so births were not common. After the war when there were not as many issues or problems people started to have children again.

Louis St Laurent

1948 - 1957

He was the Prime Minister and during his career he got Newfoundland to join the confederation. He had the Trans Canada highway act and he had Canadian troops in the UN to help during the Korean War. He helped during the Suez Crisis, had equalization payments, universal old age pension, hospital insurance and the Canadian council in 1956.

Marshall Plan

04/03/1948

It gave economic help to European countries from the destruction World War II caused. Canada did not have any damage done on Canadian soil so they were in need for the Marshall Plan. American gave out $44.3 billion dollars to countries in need where the battles of the war took place.

Newfoundland

1949

In 1949 they finally join the confederation, they were the second to last Province to join. They could not survive it they stayed as there own country. There was many problems such as political and economical. They had to either join Canada or Britain and they chose to stay with Canada.

NATO

04/04/1949

Canada, the United States, Britain and Western European countries make up NATO or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NATO's purpose was to have joint defense from the countries involved if they got attacked. If one country was under attack it was like everyone was getting attacked because they were all linked together. Canadian troops were very involved in mission, they were stationed in Europe to watch over the Soviet Union.

Massey Comisssion

04/08/1949 - 1951

It is known as the Royal Commission on National Development in the arts and sciences. It was very important to Canadian culture. Making music popular because of technology to broadcast. There was no opportunities for preformers in Canada. The commission Canadian talent should be promoted.

Avro Arrow

1950 - 1959

The Arvo Arrow was a Canadian military program. It was supersonic jets. There was no real reason for them they were just there. The company was a mess that no one wanted to deal with. When Diefenbaker was Prime Minister he got rid of the company. In the end the planes were very expensive and nobody wanted them, not even the Air Force.

Civil Rights

1950

To have individual freedom, the right to integrity, life, safety, protection. Not be discriminated for race, gender, identity, ethnicity. Also the right for justice. The list of rights came from the human rights of Canada law. There is economic, socials and cultural rights that everyone has the right to.

Communism and McCarthyism

1950 - 1956

Thousands of people were being accused of being communist during this period of time. People believing all questionable people were Soviet spies. Out of the many targeted many people were in government. Not all accused were some were educators, unionists and celebrities. People were just being accused with no evidence to support it but if someone got accused everyone believed that it must be true, some of it was not the majority of it was not.

Presence of Nuclear Weapons in Canada

1950 - 1972

Canada had four nuclear weapons in systems. With hundreds of nuclear warheads. BY 1972 Canada had withdrawn all the weapons. Leaving Canada having no nuclear warfare and depending on the US if something bad were to happen.

Transfer Payments

1950

Payments going from government to government or in specific cases government to people. Is to help out with social security which includes old age pension and employment insurance. Also to equalize world payments.

Korean War

06/25/1950 - 07/27/1953

The Korean war was between North and South Korea and the South was supported by the United Nations. The North are communists and the South is right wing government. The war started when the North invaded the South. 5,000 Canadian women were recruited for military services. Canada was supporting the United Nations in the war. The purpose was to stop communism from spreading.

Colombo Plan

11/28/1950

It is a cooperative government to make a stronger economy. The Canadian Government was apart of it but they were skeptical about the plan. Over all Canada contributed $25 million towards the plan. The purpose of the plan was to fix the standard of living in South-East Asia and to help change the employment rate.

Dew Line

02/15/1954

It was a warning line that the air defense had in place incase Canada was attacked. If there was a fight it would have to be over the North Pole. Dew stands for the distant early warning system. There was radar always monitoring the air for possible attacks and nuclear warfare overhead.

Vietnam

11/01/1954 - 04/30/1975

It was the biggest conflict during the cold war. Vietnam was divided in two. The North was Communist and the South was a Democracy. Finally in the 1960's American troops had to be involved. It was the first war that was filmed on television cameras. The US troops were unable to win the war even though they were better trained for war and had more advanced weapons. Canadians were lumped together with the Americans when it came to the fighting. IN 1969 the troops were removed and ultimately the North defeated the South.

Growth of Parites

1955

The Liberals being very popular during the Cold War era and after. The Conservatives or the Progressive Conservatives never losing power. Also in the 1980's the NDP being one of the major parities who were formed in 1961.

Warsaw Pact

05/14/1955

It was put in place because of NATO. The Soviet Union was alarmed of NATO when West Germany joined. The pact was between all the Eastern European countries banning together like Canada, the US, Britain and the Western European countries did. They made the pact incase they were to get attacked just like NATO they would go help each other out.

Canada Council

1956

The Canadian council for the arts. To promote the arts in Canada and to help fund them by giving loans to artists in all categories. Administering awards such as the Governor General's Literary Award. The categories of the arts are visual, media, dance, music, theater and writing.

Peacekeeping

1956

Canada plays a large role in peacekeeping. They have been in every mission since the United Nations started in 1942. Canada has aided many people from natural disasters and war refugees. They have helped build schools, damn and roads for countries who are in serious need.

Suez Crisis

10/29/1956 - 11/07/1956

The crisis was over the Suez Canal in Egypt. It was Egypt against France, Israel and Britain supporting Israel. Israel was attacking and Britain and France wanted Israel and Egypt to stop what was happening so Britain and France bombed the canal. The crisis was getting out of hand and the Canadian Government stepped in. Lester Pearson brought in the UN as a last resort to stop what was going on. With the help of the UN the crisis was over. Person won a Nobel Peace Prize for contributing to stop the crisis.

Diefenbaker

1957 - 1963

Diefenbaker was the Prime Minister of Canada. He passed the Canadian Bill of Rights and he implemented the vote for first nations people. HE was the one to cancelled the Avro Arrow project because in no way it benefited Canada. In 1961 he had the Royal Commission of Health Services. The improved old age pension making it better for people and he appointed the 1st female federal Cabinet Minister.

Separatism

1957

The French have never gotten along with the English. Eventually the French could not take it and wanted to separate from Canada. Quebec believed it would be best for them if they were there own country. Extremists started the FLQ to voice there opinions on the topic in radical ways.

NORAD

08/01/1957

NORAD is the North American Air Defense. It was when Canada and the United States joined together against the Soviet Union incase the Soviet Union attacks either country. \there was a good possibility of it because the US was one of the superpowers putting a target on there back and Canada was closely linked to the US. NORAD includes fighter forces, missile bases, and air defense radar. The controls for each country were located in Colorado and North Bay Ontario. At the call of a single command there could be 1,000 bombers ready to fight and defend.

Right to Vote

1960

Diefenbaker gave the Aboriginals the right to vote. The government was still unsure of letting the Aboriginals to have self-government. To vote in Canada before if a Aboriginal wanted to vote they had to give up all of there status and become a Canadian citizen to vote. Now that is no longer a issue for them, they can vote no matter what.

Women's Rights

1960

There was a rise in feminism. Women felt trapped in the roles they are supposed to be in. They were only allowed to have low paying jobs. The conclusion the commissioners came to on women's rights were to have the right to work in good jobs, not having to stay at home, daycare for children so women could work and get maternity pay. To have equality for women, to have women in the government, high level businesses, education and civil services. In the 1980's women could be doctors, engineers, politicians, and presidents of companies.

Youth Quake

1960

Half of North American in the 1960's were under 25. The children from the baby boom were growing up and there was lots of children and teens. The quake started when the British invasion happened. It was the time of the hippie and rock and roll era. Not everyone was that way but the majority of the people were. Music was very influential and dealt with controversial topics like racism, war and the environment. In the 1980's the teens were starting to grow up and become adults by getting jobs and getting married.

Science and Technology

1960

The promotion of scientific development and technological development. The creation of the Ministry of sate for science and technology. Ordinated measures of the government on promotion of science and tech.

Quite Revolution

1960

The revolution was a time for change. To rid the government of corruption and corruption anywhere in Canada. Making wages and pensions have more money. To have no restrictions on trade unions. To modernize Canadian culture, politics, education and economy.

Bill of Rights

08/10/1960

The bill was created by Prime Minister Diefenbaker to provide Canadians with there rights and laws. The Bill of Rights is still being used today. The Bill of Rights includes freedom of speech, equal rights, right to live, the right to a counsel, and security. The bill is to protect human rights and keep Canadian identity.

OPEC

1961

OPEC or the organization of the petroleum exporting countries. It is policies for oil producing counties. With steady income and good return in investments for being apart of it. The other oil countries wanted Canada to be involved to help balance everything. Canada was not interested to join but they could have provided environmental technologies and investments to other countries who needed help.

John F Kennedy

01/20/1961 - 11/22/1963

He was the President of the United States. He helped clear up the Cuban Missile Crisis, which stopped a nuclear war from happening. He stopped all trade with Cuba and stopped Cuba from getting more weapons. By stopping the Missile Crisis it not only prevented the US from getting destroyed but parts of Canada also. He makes a treaty where there is no testing of nuclear weapons with the Soviet Union or Britain. Also he is the reason NASA started and provided funding for them to put a man on the moon.

Cuban Missile Crisis

10/14/1962 - 10/28/1962

Cuban's were rebelling against there leader who was pro-United States. The US retaliated by stopping trade making the Cubans going to the USSR for help. The USSR's help was putting missile bases in Cuba, which was a huge threat to the United States and parts of Canada because with the number of missiles there was and how they were placed they would destroy parts of Canada. President John F Kennedy put up blockades surrounding Cuba trying to get them to back down. Americans were looking to Canada for help but the Canadian Government did not want to get involved in the crisis. With that statement to Americans were furious at Canada. Fourteen days later Cuba finally took down the missiles.

Nikita Khrushchev

10/14/1962 - 10/28/1962

Khrushchev was the Soviet Union's Premier during the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis. He refused to get rid of the missiles. After he refused to remove the missiles the US blockaded Cuba and stopped trade so after 14 days he gave up. He made a deal and said he would take them down if the US does not invade Cuba and the US agreed to he removed the missiles. It is linked to Canadian history because if he did not take down the missiles and launched them Canada would have been in serious trouble.

FLQ

1963 - 1971

The FLQ was also known as the Front de Liberation du Quebec. It was the use of propaganda and terrorism to make there voices herd which is very extreme. People did not want Quebec to be apart of Canada, they wanted Quebec to be independent. The members would bomb the people of parliament, steal money and kidnapped public figures. They went as far as killing one of the people they kidnapped. The FLQ is the reason why the Octobter crisis happened.

Pearson

1963 - 1968

Pearson was the the Prime Minister of Canada. He helped establish NATO. He was apart of the UN peacekeeping to resolve the Suez Crisis. He is a Nobel Peace Prize winner and helped Canada get the flag it has today. Helped with universal health care, worked on the Canadian immigration act and helped with the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism.

Trudeau

1968 - 1984

Trudeau was the Prime Minister of Canada. He viewed both the French and English as equals. He created the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. He made Canada bilingual with French as Canada's official second language. He improved the constitution, brought in welfare and he promoted multiculturalism.

Irene Murdoch

1968

She divorced her abusive husband and her case went to the supreme court and she was denied her claim. She was only thought of as a farmers wife so she got nothing from the marriage, and feminists were furious. Her case made family law important in court. Also the Ontario Family Law Reform Act for child care, house management and finances.

CIDA

1968

The Canadian International Development agency or the CIDA. It gives foreign aid to developing countries. It is beneficial to Canada because the countries involved in CIDA buy and receives Canadian products, which helps out the economy. Both the countries in need get help and Canada gets something out of the deal as well.

Residential Schools

1969

Residential school were disposed of in 1969. Without residential schools children could learn about there own language and study there own culture and tradition. Residential schools were harmful because students were getting abused and treated poorly. In 1998 the government said a formal apologized to the people who were were in the schools and put in place a healing fund from the terrible things that have happened that the people can not get over.

White Paper

1969

Was to get rid of the Indian Act. To also make the Aboriginals a real part of Canada. The Aboriginals were unsure of what to think. The believed that they would lose there identity and they wanted self-government. Aboriginals specials rights they have would be taken away because the Canadian Government wanted to make them leave the reserve and branch out into different parts of Canada.

Official Language Act

09/09/1969

The Federal Government proclaims English and French as the two official languages of Canada. Creations of Commissioners of Official Languages. All the parties had to agree to it for it to work. In 1987 the act got slightly changed. People had the freedom to speak either language. It made the French and English equal.

War Measures Act

1970

The War Measures Act was created August 22 1914. It has only been used three times in history. The first was during World War I. The second was during World War II. The third time it was used was in the October Crisis in 1970 where this event took place. The Government can do anything necessary in protecting the citizens of Canada when the act is put in place. The Government can do whatever they want while the Act is in motion.

Mega Projects

1970

Large projects that were taking place in Canada. The oil in Alberta which is worth millions of dollars. Also construction, engineering, energy and making the economy more powerful. Using many natural resources.

Urbanization

1970

For technology with cars and transportation. The growth of corporations and growth of major cities. High interest rates, population growth, high rises, industrial parks, offices and shopping centers. Keep growing because of urbanization.

Trudeau's Foreign Policy

1970

To be less dependent on the United States. To have China as a trading partner because they would be great for Canada but by doing this they did not want to upset the US because they were both very close. Canada could only have foreign affairs without the US to some level, not completely. Also to lower Canada's national defense budget and reduce Canada's NATO relation with Europe.

October Crisis

10/05/1970

The crisis took place in Quebec when some members of the FLQ kidnapped a British diplomat. The FLQ said they would release Laporte if the the authorities followed some of there rules like releasing FLQ members from prison. The authorities did not meet there demands. The war measures act had to get brought in. Then anyone could be arrested because being in the FLQ was a crime. On October 17th the police found Laporte dead in a abandoned car. Two months later the police tracked down the members of the FLQ and arrested them.

Rosemary Brown

1972 - 1986

Brown was a politician who was the 1st black women to go for Federal leadership. She was appointed the chief commissioner and on the Queen's privy council of Canada. She was also a member of the NDP.

Greenpeace

1972

A environmental organization with the purpose to sustain Earth's nature keeping it as a large variety. It was to focus on the issues of global warming, deforestation, overfishing, commercial whailing, anti-nuclear and genetic engineering. The organization was founded in Vancouver British Columbia.

SALT Treaties

1972

SALT or also called the strategic arms limitation teary. There was two SALT treaties, taking place in 1972 and 1979. The treaty were between the two superpowers, United States and Soviet Union. The treaty was to have specific cut off of numbers of each superpower's nuclear weapons. That they both need to stop gaining nuclear weapons. The second treaty was to stop new missile projects from happening.

Rene Levesque

11/25/1976 - 10/03/1985

He was the Premier of Quebec and the founder of the Parti Quebecois. He was the father of sovereignty in Quebec. He was the governemnts 1st to stop the discrimination of men and women having equal jobs. He also improved social services.

Olympic Boycott

1980

It is one of the biggest boycotts in history, with over 60 nations who were apart of it. It was a movement lead by the United Sates. They refused to take part in the Olympic's because of the Soviets Unions invasion on the Middle East. After the boycott in 1980 there was another in 1984 where the Olympics were hosted in Los Angeles, California, United States. In 1984 the Soviet Union and the Eastern alliance refused to be in the Olympics. Many believed it was for revenge of the previous boycott. It is apart of Canadian history because Canada was one of the countries that did participate in the 1980's Olympics causing a chain of reactions to happening after.

Terry Fox

1980

Fox lost his right leg to cancer and he started the Marathon of Hope. The Marathon of Hope consisted of him running across Canada to raise money for Cancer research. Canadians donated millions to his fund to find a cure for cancer. Thousands of people run yearly for raising money and keeping the tradition on since he passed away when the cancer spread in his body.

Self-Government

1980

It was an assembly of natives to deal with the Federal Government. To let the natives have there own system of government and not follow Canadians government. They got there own hierarchy or power. In bill c-31 it gave them the right to have band councils to have power to deal with the communities. They wanted to control there own culture, resources, education and justice system.

Western Alienation

1980

To not involve all of Canada in Canadian politics. Leaving out the Western Countries which are British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Ontario and Quebec has the most input in politics and the Western countries do not see it to be fare. The Western countries want every Province the have a say not just two Provinces.

Referndums

1980

The two referendums in Canada were in 1980 and 1995. They were taking place in Quebec. That in 1980 should they or should they not go through with sovereignty. In 1995 the referendum was to see again if Quebec should leave or not. They voted on it and it just barely won to stay apart of Canada.

Constitutional Crisis

1982

It was the conflict in the Federal, Provincial Government and Supreme Court. They wanted to veto the separatism and wanted Canada to stay they way it was and make Quebec stay by doing almost anything. They changed the Charter of Rights and Freedoms to have a more multicultural society. Quebec's leaders refused to negotiate with the government to try to fix things.

Patriating and the Constitution

1982

The partiating was to make the constitution authoritative only in Canada. To let Britain have no say in what happens in Canada, that Canada has there own voice. Canada should not be tied to the British any longer. Originally everything had to be cleared with the British Parliament but with this that no longer needed to happen.

Charter of Rights and Freedom

04/17/1982

It is political and civil rights to all Canadians. Involving the constitution. Queen Elizabeth had to finalize the laws and say they were all acceptable. It is the Freedom of expression, right to vote, and be able to move to anywhere in Canada. It is a buffer between the Provincial and Federal Government. It is the most important law in Canada.

Mulroney

1984 - 1993

Mulroney was the Prime Minister of Canada. He had free trade in 1988. Helped created create NAFTA with the United States and Mexico. HE promoted multiculturalism and passed acts on it. He created the good and service tax. Was involved in the settlement of Nunavut in 1993. Also he had was involved in the Gulf War.

Jean Sauve

1984 - 1990

Sauve was the Governor General for Canada. She was one of the first women to be elected into Parliament in Quebec. She was the first women as a Cabinet Minister and the first to be a women speaker at the House Commons.

Mulroney and Debt

1984

Canada going to be like the United States and Britain where conservative government cuts back on government. To lower taxes and cut spending on social benefits. Mulroney wanted to do that by lessening on social programs. With all of the saving they make they could pay off the debt Canada has. In the end the plan did not work and taxes had to be raised bringing in the GST tax.

Gorbachev

1985

He was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Made it possible for Soviet citizens to voice there opinions and have input on what is happening. Also completely changing there economy.He ended the arms race between the United States and the Soviet Union that went on for years. It was one of the largest and longest nuclear stand off to happen in history. He won a Nobel Peace Prize for the work he had done.

"Star Wars"

1985

Star War also know as Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). A space system that would protect the United States from nuclear missiles or weapons. Canada was never apart of this organization. Canada would get nothing out of it. They were a peaceful country that is not likely to get bombed and if they were to it would be because a bomb went off in the US close to the border. Canada supported the US with the organization but thought it was best to not be apart of it.

Meech Lake Accord

1987 - 1990

Mulroney's conference on amending the constitution. To recognize Quebec to be there own Province and that they will not be forgotten about because they believed the English were favored. It would also give more power to all Provinces. Not every Province agreed with the changes. The Quebeckers liked the change because they believed they would still get to keep there cultures. Also Aboriginal were getting recognized for people not just nobody. The accord was pointless because nothing happened with it.

Oka Standoff

07/11/1990 - 09/26/1990

The Oka council wanted to make a golf course that was not technically on there land. It was considered Mohawk territory. The Mohawks took actions fast and put up a blockade to stop the construction. The Mayor of Oka called in the police to help with the problem. There was violence towards each side and no one was going to give up. Eventually the troops were called in to help put a end to everything. The Government then learnt how the natives would never give up if they were fight for something important to them

Gulf War

08/02/1990 - 02/28/1991

It was the United States against Iraq. The US went to war because of Iraq's invasion on Kuwait. The Americans got the help of 27 countries to back down. Canada was involved by having Fighter Bombers, the Army, and the Navy fighting against Iraq. The Gulf War destroyed Iraq. After everything was said and done the UN said that they were going to take a more active role as a global police force.

Somalia

1992

Canada helped out East African Nations that have been destroyed by war. Canada played a big part in helping out Somalia, they have had a good reputation for being peacekeepers and helping out. Until a incident in Somalia where a Somalian teen was on a Canadian army base and a few armed forces beat the teen to death. People were trying to cover up the incident, high leveled armed forces tried to cover up what happened and say that nothing went on

Charlottetown

1992

They answered Quebec's concern like Meech Lake. To finally solve the dispute between to French and the English. To reform the Senate and to have equal representation for all Provinces in Government. The ideas were rejected by Canadians because people were finding to many things wrong with the ideas. BC voters though that with the changes it would give Quebec to much power that they did not need.

Team Canada

1993

Team Canada was the expansion of trade with Canada. With other countries that they do not normally trade with. To have trade with Asia and Latin America and free trade with Chile ans Israel.

Chretien

1993

He was the leader of the liberals in the 1990. He was also the Prime Minister of Canada. During his career he accomplished many things. He improved Canada economy. He was the one to pass the clarity bill and to bring in the child tax benefit. He also brought in the international criminal court.

Rowanda

1994

Canadians went to Rwanda as peacekeepers. There was mass killings happening where a million people died. Canada tried to get the killings to stop but they could bot do much, so they tried to get the help of the United States and the United Nations. The UN and US did nothing about it they just ignored the issue.

NAFTA

01/01/1994

It was the North American Free Trade Agreement. With free trade in the United States Canada could then trade with Mexico. At the time free trade was very controversial. It would attract the US to Canada make Canadian industries grown and have a larger US market. Many people were against the idea of free trade. There could be American branch plants in Canada creating more jobs and there would be no tariffs in doing it. Canadian companies could move manufacturing to Mexico making it cheaper to produce products. It is a win win situation for both countries involved.

Paul Martin

1994

Martin was the Finance Minister of Canada. He was in charge of totaling the annual debt for the country and figured out in 94 that it would be 60 million. So they had to cut Federal spending because they did not want to raise taxes. With that many jobs were cut because there was no longer needs for them. There was less money available for healthcare so people in Canada left for the US to get medical help. The plan did not work that well.

Natural Resources

01/12/1995

The natural resources that Canada has to offer. Which includes forestry, oil, natural gases, and minerals. It helps build the wealth of Canada also boosting the economy, culture and expanding on trading partners.

Kyoto Accord

1997

To control greenhouse gas off gassing from industrial countries. It only covered 15% of the off gassing after Canada, Japan, New Zealand and Russia were dealt with. The United States never joined because China never joined.

Nunavut

1999

It was the creation of the territory. It was the largest treaty ever in Canada. Inuits received 1.6 million km squared land in the arctic. The land claims and self-government will keep on growing more powerful.

Nisga Treaty

05/11/2000

The treaty was between the Nisga people and British Columbia. They Nisga people wanted to own the land they lived on. The Canadian government let them live on Canadian land but they were not in anyway allowed to own it. At the end of setting the treaty the Nisga people received 2000 km squared of land that is there's. The Nisga people never gave up. They fought for years to get there land.