ROMAN HISTORY FINAL

Dynasties

Julio-Claudians

27 BC - 68 AD

The Julio-Claudians consisted of the first 5 emperors of Rome (Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero). None were blood related to the one before, but all somehow related.

Flavians

69 AD - 96 AD

Dynasty that ruled after the Julio-Claudians. Made up of Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian. Rose to power during 69 (the year of the four Emperors)

Antonines

96 AD - 192 AD

Dynasty after Flavians. Made up of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus. The first five were adopted by their predecessor. Adoption was a bond as strong as blood.

Emperors

AUGUSTUS

27 BC - 14 AD

First emperor of Rome. Part of Julio-Claudian dynasty. Born into wealth and power. Formed 2nd triumvirate to avenge Caesar’s death (his uncle). Started an era of peace (Pax Romana). Greatly enlarged empire.

TIBERIUS

14 AD - 37 AD

2nd emperor of Rome. Part of Julio-Claudian dynasty. Stepson of Augustus. One of Rome’s greatest generals, but reserved and thought to not really want to be emperor. Tried to be like Augustus but he failed, so he stated age as the reason he could not be princeps.

CALIGULA

37 AD - 41 AD

3rd emperor of Rome. Part of Julio Claudian dynasty. His great-uncle was Tiberius. Was thought of as moderate for first 2 years of rule, but became crazy tyrant after. Wanted to increase, and get rid of limits on the power of the emperor. Made 2 aqueducts. Was assassinated by Praetorian Guard and Senate in an attempt to restore the Republic but this failed. Claudius (Caligula’s uncle)became emperor.

CLAUDIUS

41 AD - 54 AD

4th emperor of Rome. Part of Julio Claudian dynasty. Uncle to Caligula. He had a limp and was slightly deaf, so his family kinda shunned him and wouldn’t let him be in office until Caligula shared consulship with him. No one saw him as a threat. Did a lot of work for the public (built roads, aqueducts, etc..) Drained a lake to make more land around Italy, but failed. Respected senate.

NERO

54 AD - 68 AD

5th and final emperor in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nephew to Claudius. Nero focused on diplomacy, trade, and cultural life. People thought he started the Great Fire of Rome in 64 to clear the area for an arena. Rebellions in Gaul forced him from the throne and he eventually committed suicide which led to the Civil War.

VESPASIAN

69 AD - 79 AD

1st emperor in the Flavian era. Known for starting the construction of the colusseum. Made new taxes and rid government of corrupt people.

DOMITIAN

81 AD - 96 AD

Last emperor of Flavian dynasty. Revalued coinage, expanded border defense, and built city back up. His empire was very totalitarian-like. He wanted to control everything.

TRAJAN

96 ad - 117 ad

Good emperor. Sent Pliny to oversee poorer towns. Talked to Pliny a lot. Told Pliny not to hate Christians, and wanted to maintain good order. Expansion.

HADRIAN

117 AD - 138 AD

One of the 5 good emperors. Chose not to expand. Defended weak against strong. Rectified tax situations.

MARCUS AURELIUS

161 AD - 180 AD

Last of the 5 good emperors. Also an important stoic philosopher. Ruled with brother. Rome was in bad shape at the time, but he helped.

DIDIUS JULIANUS

193 AD - 194 AD

Only ruled for 9 weeks. Bought throne. Caused civil war. Was killed for that.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS

193 AD - 211 AD

Restored stability. Despite this, he paid soldiers more and brought more lands into Rome, which caused financial and military burdens to the gov’t.

CARACALLA

198 AD - 217 AD

Son of septimius severus and Julia. Ruled with brother, Geta, then killed him. Not a very nice emperor. Passed the Constitutio Antoniniana in 212, which granted rights of roman citizenship to non romans in the territory. Did this for taxation reasons.

GALLIENUS

253 ad - 268 ad

Emperor, but more intellectual than the others. He ruled during the Crisis of the Third Century that nearly caused the collapse of the empire. He was assassinated.

AURELIAN

270 AD - 275 AD

During his reign, he defeated the Alamanni after a devastating war. He also defeated the Goths, Vandals, Juthungi, Sarmatians, and Carpi. Restored empire through many wars. Ended crisis of the third century.

DIOCLETIAN

284 AD - 305 AD

Born to a poor family. Became powerful through military. Also stabilized empire and ended crisis of the third century. Established a "tertiarchy" rule that the empire would be divided into quarters and there would be one person ruling over each quarter. This didn’t last long.

CONSTANTINE

306 AD - 337 AD

First emperor to be converted to Christianity. Co-signed “Edict of Milan” that stated tolerance of all religions in the empire, but geared toward Christianity. Gave Christians land and allowed them to enter into higher positions. Poured money into Church. Formed Council of Nicea in 325 and Constantinople (new capital of roman empire) in 330.

JULIAN

361 ad - 363 ad

Last non-christian ruler. Wanted to bring rome back to its old values because thought that Christianity was causing it to fail.

VALENS

364 AD - 378 AD

Ruled over eastern half of empire. Signed treaty that cut off relations between rome and the goths (since they kept attacking..assholes). Beginning of decline of Western roman empire.

THEODOSIUS

379 AD - 395 AD

Last emperor that ruled over both western and eastern halves of the empire. Made Nicene Christianity official religion of the state.

ROMULUS AUGUSTULUS

475 AD - 476 AD

Considered last roman emperor. Deposed by German Chiefman Odoacer, which marks the end of the Western Roman Empire. Didn’t really do much.

JUSTINIAN

527 ad - 565 ad

Byzantine emperor. Known as “last roman”. Wanted to bring back greatness of roman empire and partially reconquered western half.

MILITARY FIGURES

SEJANUS

14 AD - 31 AD

Commander of Praetorian Guard. Soldier and good friend of Tiberius. Power hungry.Tried to kill Julio-Claudian heirs so he could be emperor. When Tiberius learned of this, he had him arrested and killed.

PLINY THE YOUNGER

61 AD - 112 AD

Imperial magistrate to the emperor Trajan. Wrote a lot of letters.

STILICHO

359 AD - 408 AD

High ranking general under first Theodosius and then Honorius, and at his time, the most powerful man in Rome. Last roman general to successfully fight off barbarians.

ALARIC

410 AD - 411 AD

King of Visigoths. Responsible for the sack of Rome in 410.

POETS/RELIGIOUS FIGURES

SENECA

4 BC - 65 AD

Tutor and adviser to Nero. Philosopher. Thought he might have contributed to the plot to assassinate Nero, but not proven -> Forced to Kill himself. Very involved in Christian Church (they liked his writings). Tutor and advisor to Nero. Philosopher Thought he might have contributed to the plot to assassinate Nero, but not proven -> Forced to Kill himself. Very involved in Christian Church (they liked his writings).

JUVENAL

90 AD - 120 AD

(Really late 1st century to early 2nd) Roman poet. Author of the satires on roman values.

APULEIUS

125 AD - 180 AD

Prose writer. Wrote “the golden ass” about a dude whos turned into a donkey. Very controversial. Thought he was using magic to get famous.

AUGUSTINE

354 AD - 430 AD

“Father of church”. Influential writings in the development of western Christianity and philosophy. Converted to Christianity in 387, then DEVELOPED CATHOLIC CHURCH.

OTHER

AGRIPPINA

16 AD - 59 AD

Great-granddaughter of Augustus. Powerful woman. Sister of Caligula. This gave her a lot of power. Was given rights, and coins were made of her. Gave birth to Nero. Married Claudius (her uncle). Granted title of Augusta. Liked power. Removed anyone that threated her power

JULIA DOMNA

170 AD - 217 AD

Wife of Septimius Severus. Mother of Caracalla. Influenced her son a lot.

Main

IMPORTANT EVENTS

JEWISH REVOLT

66 AD - 73 AD

Began as Greek/Jewish religious tensions, then escalated into protests against taxation and attacks on Roman citizens. Rome won.