Supreme Court Cases

Main

Marshall Court

1801 - 1835
  • Chief Justice John Marshall

Marbury v. Madison (1803)

1803
  • Stated the Supreme Court had the power to declare a law unconstitutional (judicial review)

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

1819
  • Ruled that states cannot tax the federal government

Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

1819
  • Upheld the sanctity of contracts

Johnson v. McIntosh (1823)

1823
  • Clarified rights of Indians to tribal lands and stated that only the federal government could take land away

Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)

1824
  • Declared the power of Congress over interstate commerce

Taney Court

1836 - 1864

Dred Scott v. Sanford

1857
  • Ruled that slaves were not citizens and therefore had no case

Civil Rights Cases of 1883

1883
  • Ruled segregation legal

Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railway Co. v. Illinois (1886)

1886
  • Declared Granger Laws unconstitutional

U. S. v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895)

1895
  • Ruled that the government could not act against monopolies

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

1896
  • "Separate but equal"

"Insular Cases" (1901

1901
  • Established the right of the government to place tarrifs

Schenck v. U. S. (1919)

1919
  • Free speech can be limited when a "clear and present danger" exists

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)

1931
  • Established a trust relationship between the government and Indian tribes

Worcester v. Georgia (1832)

1932
  • Established "territorial boundaries" within which Indians had free rule

Korematsu v. U. S. (1941)

1941
  • Declared the removal of Japanese citizens duing WWII constitutional

Warren Court (1953 - 1969)

1953 - 1969
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren
  • Ended racial segregation
  • Ended prayer in schools

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)

1954
  • Declared separate but equal unconstitutional

Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

1963
  • Established that legal defense for the accused must be provided

Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)

1964
  • Defendant must be given a lawyer before being questioned by police

Miranda v. Arizona (1966)

1966
  • An accused person must be aware of their rights

Roe v. Wade (1973)

1973
  • Legalized abortion

U. S. v. Richard Nixon (1974)

1974
  • Nixon's involvement in Watergate and refusal to turn over secret tapes to the Court