Ancient Greece

Main

Mycenaean Time Period

1600 bc - 1100 bc

Bronze Age?

1100 bc - 1000 bc

beginning date unknown, but the first period of art

Dark Ages

1000 bc - 900 bc

Geometric Period

900 bc - 700 bc

❋ Crude, rudimentary, symmetrical, triangles
❋ Celebrate life, especially over death
❋ Depth is beginning to be shown
❋ Monumental temples, sculptures
❋ Writing on pottery
❋ Egyptian influence- seen from the front only, formal/stoic
❋ Art tells a story- mythological/religious purposes
❋ STYLIZED- symmetrical, rigid, patterned, less realistic

History

750 bc

Heroditis- father of history

Greek Culture

750 bc
  1. Private Funding for distant settlements (exporting the culture)
  2. Trade (Boats to travel longer distances) ~~> olives, wine, barley
  3. Polei development (own gov., own economy, shares Olympian gods, independent)
  4. Citizenship
  5. Natural resources helped

Defense

750 bc

Defense of Greek values/ culture vs. Persians

Art

750 bc

Human form/ scullptures

Orientalizing Period

700 bc - 600 bc

❋More realistic, motion, calves
❋Humans vs. monsters
❋Perfect human traits
❋Mythic creatures being tamed by humanity
❋Order being restored by humans
❋Period of Greek colonization - CULTURAL DIFFUSION

Archaic Period

600 bc - 480 bc

❋ Ideal man ~~> youth, eternal beauty, heroic quality
❋ Nude, free-standing ~~> KOUROS
❋ Women wear clothes- offering something to the gods, modesty
❋ Treasuries/Archaic temples ~~> Votive offerings
❋ Karyatids - a person like a column, watching treasury

Early Classical

480 bc - 400 bc

❋ Delphi- bronze casting, attention to detail, motion
❋ Negative space
❋ Acropolis/ natural beauty in the human form

Late Classical

400 bc - 320 bc

❋ Athena's temple
❋ Sculptures are in ruins, archaeologists have to imagine what they looked like
❋ Full complexity of Greek art
❋ All of the final, adept characteristics

People

Solon

640 bc - 559 bc

❋ Fixed economy during its decline
❋ Eliminated debt slavery "shaking off the burdens"
❋ Citizenship
❋ Created the council of 480

Draco

600 bc

❋ time ~~> estimate
❋ first legistlator of ancient greece
❋ replaced system of oral law by a written code "Harsh Law Code"
❋ Almost all punishments were death/slavery

Cleisthenes

570 bc - 508 bc

❋ "Father of Athenian Democracy"
❋ Consistuent units- demes❋
❋Annually chosen council members, council of 500

Peistratus

570 bc - 527 bc

❋ benevolent tyrant
❋ temporary tyranny of Athens
❋ commoners received & freedoms ~~> agriculture

Leonidas

540 bc - 480 bc

❋ Hero - battle of Marathon
❋ One of the kings of Sparta (diarchy)
❋ Battle of Thermopylae was his death
❋ Inspired wavering city-states to fight against Persia in war

Themistocles

525 bc - 459 bc

❋ Athenian politician & general, beginning of the democracy
❋ Participated in the Battle of Marathon
❋ Persuaded Greeks to build a navy then led them to victory over the Persians

Sophecles

496 bc - 406 bc

❋ Playwrighter of tragedies
❋ Created the 3rd actor

Pericles

495 bc - 429 bc

❋ Influential statesmen/leader of Greeks during golden Age
❋ Supported the call for democracy
❋ Radical democracy (?)
❋ Initiated 30 year treaty with Sparta during Pele. war

Herodotus

484 bc - 425 bc

❋ First historian
❋ Persian War, interview people, narrative, observations

Euripides

480 bc - 406 bc

❋ Playwrighter of tragedies
❋ Tried to answer real-life questions

Socrates

469 bc - 399 bc

❋ influential philosopher, fights with words
❋ not afraid to die
❋ opposite of wise ~~> ignorant
❋ he accepts he doesn't know all
❋ decline of democracy began with his death
❋ gadfly, socrates' method
❋ what is piety? is pious pious bc god loves pious?

Thucydides

460 bc - 395 bc

❋ Historian- documented the conflict & interpreted (inferences)
❋ Funeral Oration- issue of validity, how do we know?

Alcibiades

450 bc - 404 bc

❋ assassinated
❋ prominent statesmen, orator, general

Plato

427 bc - 347 bc

❋ Socrates' student
❋ Philosopher

Aristotle

384 bc - 322 bc

❋ Greek philosopher
❋ student of plato
❋ Influenced western thought

Wars/Events

Persian War

499 bc - 448 bc

Battle of Marathon

490 bc

Greeks won
Ran to Athens afterwards to warn them of retreating Persians

Battle of Thermopylae

480 bc

Traitor, Persians Won
All died heroes, Leonidas

Delian League

478 bc

Founded now
Athens ran it
Met at Delos
Athens started to use navy for its own purposes
Other members started to get upset

First part of Pelop. War

461 bc - 445 bc

Parthenon contructed

449 bc

Other major buildings as well
Art has climaxed?

30 yr. peace treaty

446 bc

Supposed to be 30years, or it was 30yr??

Antigone

441 bc

Pelep.

431 bc - 404 bc

Plague strikes Athens

430 bc

Athenians think it to be Pericles' fault
Everything is falling apart

Athens takes Melos

416 bc

Athens gives Melos the ultimatum
Losing just thoughts

30 Tyrants rule Athens

404 bc - 403 bc

Chaos

Democracy restored in Athens

403 bc