Must Know EVERYTHING

Must Know Dates, Societies, and People

Beginnings of Agriculture

8000 BCE

Old Kingdom of Egypt

3100 BCE - 2200 BCE

under the rule of King Menes, unified Upper and Lower Egypt, remarkable for pyramids, torn in civil war, theocracy, hieroglyphics

Mesopotamia

3000 BCE - 1600 BCE

land between Tigris and Euphrates rivers, cities of mud-brick buildings, city-state, residential center for the king, worship and commerce (ziggurat- terraced pyramid topped with temple)cuneiform, calendar, polytheistic Epic of Gilgamesh

Beginnings of Bronze Age

3000 BCE

Indus Valley Civilization

2900 BCE - 1750 BCE

well-planned cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, had large granaries to store surplus crops as taxes, public drainage systems, piped water, ceremonial bathhouses (The Great Bath or Moist Mystery of Mohenjo-Daro), supported by agriculture, writing yet to be deciphered

Middle Kingdom of Egypt

2100 BCE - 1700 BCE

rule of Prince Thebes, reclaimed land in Nile delta, trade expanded, era marked by literature, art, and ideas, torn by civil war then invaders

Abraham

1813 BCE - 1638 BCE

honored in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam

Hittites

1800 BCE - 1178 BCE

developed iron, Anatolian Peninsula (present day Turkey)

Hammurabi

1792 BCE - 1750 BCE

king of Syria then established Babylonian Empire in Mesopotamia, Hammurabi's Code-one of the first written codes of law

New Kingdom of Egypt

1580 BCE - 1341 BCE

rebellion against the Hyksos resulted in New Kingdom, accepted outside military influence, ruled Syria, Palestine, and Nubia

Iron Age

1300 BCE

Historic Buddha

563 BCE - 483 BCE

founder of Buddhism, born into royalty then at 29 he left palace to searched for nirvana, Siddhartha Gautama

Aristotle

384 BCE - 322 BCE

student of Plato, teacher of Alexander the Great, Greek philosopher

Alexander the Great

323 BCE

Hellenism, Hellenistic Era

Shi Huang Di

259 BCE - 210 BCE

king of Qin Dynasty, first emperor after unification of China, Great Wall, mausoleum and terracotta army constructed under his order, also responsible for the burning of scholars as well as many books

Qin unified China

221 BCE

Beginnings of Christianity

32 CE

End of Pax Romana

180 CE

End of Han Dynasty

220 CE

Roman capitol moved to Constantinople

333

Fall of Rome

476

Justinian rule of Byzantine Empire

527

Sui Dynasty

581 CE - 618 CE

short lived Imperial dynasty

Tang Dynasty

618 CE - 907 CE

Rise of Islam

632

Battle of Tours

732

End of Muslim move into France

1st schism in Christian Church

1054

Norman conquest of England

1066

Battle of Manzikert

1071

Seljuk Turks over Byzantium

1st Crusade

1095

Genghis (Chinggis) Khan

1162 - 1227

leader of the Mongols, unified Mongol nation, promoted by merit

Mongols sack Baghdad

1258

Marco Polo's travels

1271 - 1295

Khubilai Khan

1271 - 1294

grandson of Chinggis, constructed empire around China

Ibn Battuta

1304 - 1368

Islamic traveler

Mansa Musa's pilgrammage

1324

travels of Ibn Battuta

1325 - 1349

Bubonic plague in Europe

1347 - 1348

end of Zheng He's voyages

1433

Ottomans capture Constantinople

1453

Dias rounded Cape of Good Hope

1488

Columbus/ Roconquista of Spain

1492

1st slaves to Americas

1502

Martin Luther/ 95 theses

1517

Cortez conquered the Aztecs

1521

Pizarro toppled the Inca

1533

Battle of Lepanto

1571

defeat of Ottoman Navy

defeat of the Spanish Armada by the British

1588

Battle of Sekigahara - unification of Japan

1600

beginning of Tokugawa rule

foundation of Jamestown

1607

30 years war

1618 - 1648

unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna

1683

Glorious Revolution/ English Bill of Rights

1689

7 years war/ French and Indian War

1756 - 1763

American Revolution

1776

Smith writes Wealth of Nations

French Revolution begins

1789

Haitian independence

1804

Congress of Vienna

1815

Independence of Latin America

1820

1st opium war in China

1839

European revolutions/ Marx & Engles write Communist Manifesto

1848

Commodore Perry opens Japan

1853

Sepoy Mutiny

1857

end of Russian serfdom/ Italian unification

1861

Emancipation Proclamation in US

1863

German unification

1871

Berlin Conference - division of Africa

1885

Spanish-American War

1898

US acquires Philippine, Cuba, Guam, & Puerto Rico

Boer War - British in control of South Africa

1899 - 1902

Russo-Japanese War

1905

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

Chinese Revolution/ End of Dynastic China

1911

WWI begins

1914 - 1917

Treaty of Versailles

1917

Italian invasion of Ethiopia

1919

stock market crash

1929

Japanese invasion of Manchuria

1931

Russian Revolution

1935

German blitzkrieg in Poland

1939

Pearl Harbor

1941

end of WWII

1945

independence & partition of India

1947

birth of Israel

1948

Chinese Communist Revolution

1949

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Vietnamese defeat French at Dien Bien Phu

1954

de-Stalinization/ nationalization of Suez Canal

1956

Cuban Revolution

1959

Cuban missile crisis

1962

6-day war/ Chinese Cultural Revolution

1967

Yom Kippur war

1973

Iranian Revolution

1979

1st Palestinian Intifada

1987

Tienanmen Square/ fall of Berlin Wall

1989

fall of USSR/ 1st Gulf war

1991

genocide in Rwanda/ 1st all race elections in S. Africa

1994

9/11

2001