In Altbach, Gumport, & Berdahl's American Higher Education in the 21st Century
need to know personal and professional qualities, kind of relationship with Board of Trustees
LEADERSHIP QUALITIES- Birnbaum (1992): “good leadership is what its constituents believe it to be—and they don’t always agree” (Presidents Leading Eckel & A. Kezar in Altbach et al 2011).. What it takes to be an effective leader depends on stakeholders expectations, time period, and institutional context (Eckel & A. Kezar)
- responsive to the nature of the institution & the demands of the times. (Duderstadt)
-“vision thing”—providing strategic leadership of the university toward signi‹cant goals, envisioning the university as it should be in 10 or 20 years rather than just 5.
capable of strategic vision, who view themselves as change agents, setting bold visions for their institution and launching efforts to move toward these visions…requires personal sacrifice, as the risks associated with proposing bold visions and leading change are high (Duderstadt)
-Consensus building: subtle approach to building grassroots support for any initiative. (Duderstadt)
-capable of adapting their own leadership styles to the needs of their institution…fit into the socially constructed story of the institution.. they should pay attention to the set of unique characteristics individual institutions possess. (Presidents Leading Eckel & A. Kezar in Altbach et al 2011)
What is better: Transformational vs. transactional? Bensimon, Neumann, and Birnbaum argue that transactional leadership may be more effective given the rel with presidency and faculty and loose coupling, as a more directive influence by a president may not be effective.. they believe that presidents should rely on exchange rather than a high calling Others studies suggest that effective presidents can be transformational by creating overarching visions for the campus …A middle ground exists—both transformational and transactional leadership…The appropriateness of certain approaches is often tied to the stage of the change efforts (Eckel & A. Kezar )
- deep understanding of the fundamental values and nature of an academic community
Academic leadership: most successful university presidents, regardless of institutional type, are deeply involved in academic matters,
political leadership. The management of the university’s polit- ical relationships with various constituencies—state government, fed- eral government, and various special interest groups—rests eventually with the president.
moral leadership. Universities, their communities, and their constituencies do seek guidance on such key moral issues as social diversity, civic responsibility, and social justice. Skillful presi- dents can transform crises—such as a racial incident, student misbe- havior, or an athletics scandal—into teachable moments for moral leadership.
management skills. Fortu- nately, most presidents have developed these through a sequence of earlier leadership experiences (e.g., department chair, dean, and provost).
build and work with teams of talented people
executive leadership responsibilities :
supervising the university administration;
ensuring the quality and integrity of academic programs;
managing human, financial, and capital assets;
being accountable to the governing board (and the public) for the welfare of the university. (Duderstadt)
Corporate side responsibilities: responsible for its financial operations, plant maintenance, public relations
energetic fund-raising and competent financial management
CEO: recruiting the key leadership of the university, not simply the executive officers, but also the deans and even, on occasion, key faculty members
Managing the relationship between the governing board and the university.
personal behavior, a leader can frequently influence the values and practices of an organization. If presidents value integrity, openness, truth, and compassion in their personal activities, these characteristics are more likely to be embraced and valued by those within their universities.
President and spouse are the dad and mom of the extended university family (Duderstadt)
be cheerleaders for their university, always upbeat and optimistic (Duderstadt)
learning spirit: surround self with people smarter and more talented
deep responsibility to act always in the best interests of the institution and its people,
never believe that my position was more important than my objectives.. capable of always setting institutional welfare above personal objectives, even professional survival.
what leadership philosophies and styles are most important for presidents today?
CHALLENGES: What are the biggest challenges for presidents in the 21st century?
how can they deal with them?
MISMATCH BETWEEN AUTHORITY & RESPONSIBILITY/
LIMITED AUTHORITY Duderstadt: although the responsibility for everything involving the university usually floats up to the president’s desk, direct authority for uni versity activities almost invariably rests elsewhere. This mismatch between responsibility and authority is unparalleled in other social institutions. As one colleague put it, universities may have shared gov- ernance, but nobody wants to share power with the president...Limited authority: Duderstadt: university presidents have executive responsibilities for all of these activities and purposes, the position has surprisingly little authority...Loose coupling-makes central coordination and oversight and the role of the president difficult...drawback: presidents cannot easily create organizational efficiency because of weak central coordination
Eckel & Kezar: Much of campus leadership is now delegated to CAO (p.282); Cohen and March: “president has modest control over the events of college life”
SCALE & DIVERSITY of the contemporary university, comparable to that of major global corporations or govt agencies. .. major universities are in real- ity very complex multibillion-dollar enterprises, with all of the accountability and demands of a modern business.
SHORT TERM IN OFFICE: The average tenure for the presidents of major public universities is about five years, too brief to provide the stability in leadership necessary for achieving effective change. While some of these changes in university leadership are the result of natural processes, such as retire- ment, others re›ect the serious challenges and stresses faced by uni- versities, which all too frequently destabilize their leadership. ...The average tenure for the presidents of major public universities is about five years, too brief to provide the stability in leadership necessary for achieving effective change.
POLITICS & PRESSURE: The politics of college campuses (from students to faculty to governing boards), coupled with external pressures (exerted by state and federal governments, alumni, sports fans, the media, and the public at large), make the presidency of a public university a very hazardous profession these days...Political environment: presidents may find themselves becoming like middle managers in public agencies rather than campus leaders
TRAINING LACKING:Challenge of next generation of presidents: Few CAO (chief administrative officer) want the job or are trained for the job; traditional pipeline to presidency isnt sufficient (Eckel & Kezar)
COMPLEX WEB, NO LONE RANGERS: Presidents of early colleges could be and were successful as the THE leader but now the effectiveness of the presidency depends on strong a complex web of leadership involving cabinet, external stakeholders, faculty staff and students is created
COMPETITION: Competitive market forces-Winner take all market: Competitive systems in which those at the top get a disproportionate share of the rewards..Institutions end up outspending one another, canceling another investments.. they invest to keep up but they don’t significantly improve their lot..they mimick them from an inferior positions..Fullman and Scott (2009) detect the new type of competition higher education institutions will soon face if they haven’t already in the rise in non-profits, virtual, and influx of private local institutions.
DIVERSE NEEDS: 1st GEN: Fullman and Scott (2009) maintain that a great challenge lies in managing the transition of first-generation students.
FUNDING: Fullman and Scott (2009) who identified funding and the pressure to generate monies as significant change forces in higher education.
Birnbaum: “the college presidency may still be an impossible job