King Victor Emanuel offered Mussolini the post of Italian Prime Minister, which he accepts. This coup d' etat which placed the fascists in power was highly irregular but was met with widespread popular appeal.
Mussolini- served in WWI, was wounded, wanted to be treated on par with GB and France, claimed Italian const. failed and demanded full power from the parliament. reformed electoral system.
Fascists- dissolved all clubs, unions, and other associations outside their party, replaced multiparty system with single party, known as the national party aka fascists. all candidates were part of national party. promoted aggressive nationalism.
initial factor: WWI
Germany, France, and GB all have economic downturns which cause an global financial crisis.
Cause: Lack of international coordination when economic problems started.
Pros: Led to isolationism which helped relations in Latin America.
Created the National Recovery Administration, a federal bureaucracy that limited competition in various industries by setting prices and wages above market levels.
Main reason for the creation of the SEC was to regulate stock market and prevent corporate abuses relating to the offering and sale of securities and corporate reporting, The SEC was given the power to license and regulate stock market exchanges, the companies whose securities traded on them and the brokers and dealers who conducted the trading.
DMZ as a result of the Versailles treaty. Violation of versailles treaty.
Effect: US casually begin being drawn into an Asian Conflict.
Held by hitler.
Countries present: Germany, Italy, GB, & France. NOT CZECHOSLOVAKIA
GB & France agree to give germany sudetenland in appeasement.
Hitler demands sudetenland from czech. the sudetenland had been taken from germany in the versailles treaty and given to czechoslovakia. there were 3 million ethnic germans living in sudetenland and the czechs refused, prepared for war and asking USSR, Britain and France for help.
Cause: No appeasement given by Poland of the Polish Corridor
Finland use Molotov Cocktail with great success against Russian armor.
This gives germany needed air and submarine bases against GB.
German tanks roll through Belgium and into the Argonne Forest and into France.
They assembled the largest army on the continent of Africa to that time. 350k italians prepared to attack egypt from Libya. Early 1941, Italy invades Egypt. The british counterattacked and threw the italians back in the fall of 1941. The british army captured much italian supplies and 130k italian prisoners. Hitler in effort to help Italy sends armored core and planes to Africa under general Erwin Rommel.
Defines Axis Powers; Germany, Italy, & Japan. USSR declines.
Burma, Hong Kong, Philippines, Guam, Wake, Borneo.
1st day of war, soviet air force destroyed.
2nd day- soviet air marshal commits suicide
1st 3 months- germans win 3 major battles. crush soviet armies at minsk, then kiev, & smolensk. germans take 1.6 million prisoners. USSR lose 54% men.
Fall 1941- germany slows down and soviet resistance stiffens due to rain & snow.
Soviet maul 3 japanese divisions & force Japs to change their strategy. Now Japs turn South against US.
agreement between GB and US provides a broad statement of US and british war aims.
So close they can shell russian capital.
In result, germany, who is allies with japan, declares war on US.
Americans #1 priority is the Pacific but Japan has too big of a navy and US lost some.
Japans goal- knock out US fleet, seize vital areas, and secure a defensive perimeter. Successful plan.
Feb - Singapore
March - New Guinea
April - Bataan
May - Corregidor
Japanese attack Philippines and captured them except for the island of Corregidor in Manila Harbor. 90k Americans surrender.
Bataan Death March - Americans marched into prison camps.
Japan overruns islands of the Pacific until the battle of the Coral Sea.
Coral Sea - first battle fought where neither ships saw each other.
AMERICAN VICTORY - Coral Sea
(followed up by battle at Midway)
On Tokyo, and battles at Midway Island and Guadalcanal.
Yamamoto uses simple tactics to suppress US.
US distracts Yama and attack Japanese carrier fleet. Destroyed 4 carriers.
Japanese destroy USS Yorktown in response.
US controls air superiority.
AMERICAN VICTORY - Battle At Midway
Guadalcanal - 1st US offensive in Pacific Theater
Dense jungle made difficult terrain
25k casualties on both sides. Japanese unable to recover.
German 6th army surrendered and 90k were captured.
1945 - tried and sentenced to 10 years hard labor.
Only 6k returned home in 1955.
Aftermath - the soviets counter attacked driving germans back 450 miles.
Allies target merchant ships to cut down Japanese supplies.
Battles at Saipan and the Philippines Sea saw further Allied advances and destruction of the Japanese navy.
Battle of Leyte Gulf - LARGEST NAVAL BATTLE
Broke the back of Japanese Navy and they were no longer a factor of WWII.
Let Allies take back Japanese conquests like the Philippines.
Germans vs Russians - largest tank battle
Aftermath - Operation Torch by Allies
Location - Africa
What - American Invasion of North Africa
Italy Surrenders But German Forces keep fighting.
(On the eastern front)
The fighting in Italy looked much like WWI trench warfare.
Trench warfare unsuccessful.
German defenses "Gustav Line."
This opened a 2nd front against the germans.
Threw the allies back. American forces held at Bastogne.
Iwo Jima allowed the US to start strategic bombing of japanese homes.
Allies liberate Burma and Borneo to re-secure SE Asia.
Japs lose 150k in Burma.
Battle of Okinawa, Japs amass 117k. BLOODIEST BATTLE IN PACIFIC THEATER.
US lose 75k and Japs lose 94%.
Change in Allie strategy.
64 Japanese cities were firebombed in the attempt to bomb the industrial areas.
Largest airborne invasion ever. Done by the allies. Allies suffer 13k casualties.
Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, & Hungary.
Soviet forces drove into Austria while American forces move into Czechoslovakia.
by communist partisans
Allie forces pushed slowly North until German forces surrender.
American and Russian armies meet up at Elbe River and Germany is now split between western allies and the soviets.
80k die instantly and 10s of thousands die later.
1 million soviet troops go to Manchuria and eliminate japanese army there.