Chapter 27

Main

Greece gains independence

1832

Clemenceau

1841 - 1929

Bismarck made Prussia-Germany the most powerful nation in Europe

1862 - 1871

France was defeated and forced to give up Alsace and Lorraine

1871

Karl Liebknecht

1871 - 1919

The creation of the Three Emporers' League

1873

Widespread nationalist rebellion in the Ottoman Empire

1875

Bismarck played the role of sincere peacemaker

1877 - 1878

Bismarck's balancing efforts infuriated russian nationalists

1878

Bismarck helped resolve the crisis at the 1878 Congress of Berlin

1878

Bismarck made a defensive military alliance with Austria against russia

1879

Bismarck creates a secret alliance with Germany

1881

Italy joined Germany and Austria forming the Triple Alliance

1882

Siegfried Sassoon

1886 - 1967

russia declined to renew the Alliance of the Three Emperors

1887

Emperor William II dismissed Bismarck

1890

A preliminary agreement between russia and France

1891

France and russia become military allies

1894

Tsar Nicholas II

1894 - 1917

South African War

1899 - 1902

Britain improved relations with the U.S. and concluded an alliance with Japan

1902

Balkan nationalism was on the rise once again

1903

Anglo-French Entente

1904

Germany insisted on a international conference on the Moroccan question

1905

Austria formally annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina

1905

Algeciras Conference

1906

russia agreed to settle its quarrels with Great Britain

1907

The mass-circulation of the London Daily Mail

1909

Serbia joined Greece and Bulgaria to attack the Ottoman Empire

1912

The Second Balkan War

1913

Austria intervened and forced Serbia to give up Albania

1913

Italy declared its neutrality

1914

World War I

1914 - 1918

Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated

June 28, 1914

Austria-Hungary presented Serbia with an ultimatum

July 23, 1914

Tsar Nicholas II ordered a partial mobilization against Austria- Hungary

July 28, 1914

Austria began to mobilize and then declared war on Serbia

July 28, 1914

russia ordered full mobilization

July 29, 1914

The Triple Entente was created

August 1914

The great majority of populations enthusiastically am braced the outbreak of war

August 1914

Helmuth von Moethe demanded that Belgium permit German armies to pass through

August 2, 1914

Germany's all-out invasion of France

August 3, 1914

The Battle of Tannenberg

September 1914

The French attack the German line at the Battle of the Marne

September 6, 1914

The Ottoman Empire joined with Austria and Germany

October 1914

Trenches extended from the Belgian ports to the Swiss Frontier

November 1914

British forces tried to take the Dardanelles and Constantinople

1915

Germany launches a counter blockade

1915

russian soldiers sent to the front without rifles

1915

Demands for more democratic and responsive government explode in the Duma

1915

The Ministry of Munitions is established under David Lloys George

1915

The Lusitania sinks

May 1915

Battle of Verdun

1916

The Battle of the Somme

1916

Irish nationalists rose up in Dublin in the Easter rebellion

April 1916

The chief minister of Austria was assassinated

October 1916

The Auxiliary Service Law in Germany

December 1916

Three members of the high aristocracy murdered rasputin

December 1916

Germany resumed submarine warfare

1917

Chancellor Bethamm is driven from office in Germany

1917

Agrarian Upheavals

1917

The russian revolution

1917

Nicholas II Abdicated

March 5, 1917

Bread riots in Petrograd

March 8, 1917

The Duma declared a provincial government

March 12, 1917

The U.S declared war on Germany

April 1917

reorganized provincial government continues the war

May 1917

Bolsheviks gain a majority in the Petrograd Soviet

October 1917

The Balfour Declaration

November 1917

Bolsheviks seize power

November 6, 1917

British armies smash the Ottoman Empire once and for all

1918

Lenin permanently disbands the Constituent Assembly

January 1918

Great russian Civil War

1918 - 1920

Lenin convinces the Bolsheviks to accept a peace with Germany

February 1918

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

March 1918

The peace conference opened in Paris

January 1919

German representatives sign the treaty in the Sun King's Hall of Mirror

June 28, 1919

Lenin and the red army are victorious

1920