History, Medicine

Pasteur

discovers germs

1857

brewing industry problem (long glass necks)

begins to study silkworms

1865

pebrine silkworms, many scientists don't accept theory

germs linked to disease

1867

proves

begins anthrax

1877

sheep

public experiment anthrax

1881

proved vaccination for anthrax

team begin vaccination for rabies

1882

rabies boy saved

1885

series of injections of rabbit spinal chord, cured him

Koch

developed new experimental methods &use of dyes and photography to prove his findings. Relied on microscope

begins study on anthrax

1872

identified anthrax microbe

1875

by studying blood of affected and unaffected animals

discovers TB microbe

1882

identifies cholera germ

1883

Lister and Antiseptics

many surgeons thought it was too extreme that the whole room was covered in carbolic acid. V expensive and time consuming

Discovers carbolic acid

1864

sewages

compound fracture - no infection

1866

bandages soaked in Carbolic acid saves boy from death from infection (was the normal consequence of compound fractures)

publishes carbolic acid ideas

1867

death rates plummeted when introduced

began experimenting with penicillin

1871

Listerine produced as surgical antiseptic

1879

first successful surgery to remove infected appendix

1880

all instruments steam sterilised

1887

sterilised gloves introduced

1894

William Halstead

first heart operation success

1896

anaesthetics: nitrous oxide, ether, simpson and chloroform

Horace Wells discovers nitrous oxide

1845

some people not affected - didn't catch on

news of ether success spreads to europe

1846

William Morton - ether used in public surgery

1846

SIMPSON discovers chloroform

1847

John snow develops inhaler

1847

15 year old dies of overdose chloroform

1848

Queen V uses chlo in childbirth

1853

caused more widespread use

Crimean army rejects use of anaesthetics

1854