Great Britain

AP European History Course - England, Ireland, Wales, Scottland

Politics

Poor Law

1601

created a national poor system for England and Wales.

Restoration

1660

... of the monarchy.
Charles II united England, Ireland, and Scotland.

Corn Laws

1815

to regulate the foreign grain trade
rested in protests and demonstrations

United Nations formed

1945

Economic

East India Comapy

1600

International trade system.

Traded materials, dyes, spices, tea.

The Wealth of Nations

1776

by Adam Smith.
"economy works better without without government interference"

Economic imperialism arrives

1816

world trade

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Started in the USA, spread to Europe

OPEC oil crisis

1973

and in 1979

Conservative economic politics

1990

Social

Black Death arrives

1348

Via Bristol Canal.
1.4 million out of 4.2 million died.

Peasant Revolts

1381

Caused by poor economic situations.
Heavy taxes, low incomes.

Canterbury Tales

1387

by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Tale of 30 on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. Shows the diversity of English social life.

Decline of serfdom

1600

Enlightenment arrives

1650

Jethro Tull

1674

Developed new farming methods.
- plowing
- drilling (sowing seeds at proper intervals and depth)

Development of steam engine

1705

by Thomas Newcomen

Black death dissapears

1720

Enclosure

1730

end of the open field system

Population increase

1750

due to a rise in illegitimate births, and better health

Steam engine

1780

James Watt (Irish)
promoted industrial breakthrough

Smallpox vaccine

1796

Edward Jenner

Battle of Peterloo

1819

Protest in Satin Peter's Fields in Manchester.
Broken up by armed cavalry.

Great (Potato) Famine

1845 - 1851

in Ireland

Women's property rights

1882

Third Reform Bill

1884

Universal male suffrage

Women's suffrage movement

1900 - 1914

Easter Rebellion

1916

in Ireland.
Irish republicans against English rule in Ireland.
Irish lost.

Atom split

1919

Earnest Rutherford

Public radio broadcasts

1920

... begins

Radar developed

1939

aided in defeating Nazi's in WWII

Military

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

France VS England.

Over successor to French Throne.

English lost.
Captured Joan of Arc and executed her.
Major economic repercussions.
Resulted in nationalism.

War of the Roses

1455 - 1485

York VS Lancaster.
Over the next King of England. Lancaster victory, start of Tudor Dynasty.
York = red rose
Lancaster = white rose

Civil War

1642 - 1649

Royalists VS Parliamentarianists
Parliamentary victory.
Caused by the king not giving the Parliament enough power.
Resulted in Cromwell rising to power.

Glorious Revolution

1688 - 1689

Resulted in power being divided between the monarchy and the parliament, and in a constitutional monarchy.

Seven Years'War

1754 - 1763

France + Austria VS Britain + Prussia
Resulted in Austrian victory and the Peace of Paris.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

Russia VS Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, France.
Over border disputes (Russia/Ottoman Empire), resulted in Peace of Paris (agreement to honor the borders).

Boer War

1899 - 1902

English VS Dutch. English victory.
Over Dutch colonies in Africa. English gained Cape Colony.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Central Powers VS Allies. (Great Britain - Allies)
Resulted in Allied victory and the Treaty of Versailles.

World War II

1939 - 1945

Allies VS Axis.
Allied victory.

Battle of Britain.
Development of radar.

Religious

Break with Catholic Church

1532 - 1534

Started with Anne Boleyn and King Henry VIII.
Move to Protestantism.
1) the Anglican Church
2) divorce from Catherine

Revival of Christianity

1925

Cultural

John Wyclif

1330

Writer.
Attacked the papacy's actions.
Had some Protestant ideas (reading Bible individually, abolish pluralism and absent-ism).
Followers called "Lollards".

Utopia

1516

by Thomas More.
Humanist.

The Advancement of Learning

1543

by Francis Bacon.

Empiricism.

Baroque arrives

1550

Shakespeare

1564

playwrite

William Harvey

1578

Physician.
Described the circulatory system.

Thomas Hobbes

1588

Writer, philosopher.
Empiricism, realism.

Second Treatise on Civil Government

1690

by John Locke.
Classical liberalism. Enlightenment.

David Hume

1711

Empiricist.
"One needs to experiment to know"

Jeremy Benthem

1748

followers = Bethemites.
radical philosopher
social problems should be resolved with rational, scientific solutions
Utils: his unit of measurement of consumption pleasure
supply demand

Romanticism arrives

1790

The Vindication on the Rights of Man

1792

by Mary Wollstonecraft

The Iron Law of Wages

1817

by David Ricardo.
never have more jobs than people who want to work.
employers will always employ those who will work for the least amount

Realism arrives

1850

On Liberty

1859

by John Stewart Mill
utilitarianism, empiricism, liberalism

Impressionism

1870

in art

Modernism arrives

1900

Cubism

1905

in art

Existentialism arrives

1920

the belief that philosophical thinking begins with the human subject—not merely the thinking subject, but the acting, feeling, living human individual

Dadaism and Surrealism arrive

1920

art movements
(abstract)

1984

1949

George Orwell

The Beatles

1960

music group. :)

Women's movement

1970

Leaders

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Wives: Catherine of Aragon (daughter: Mary), Ane Boleyn (daughter: Elizabeth), Jane Seymore (son: Edward)
Responsible for the break with the Roman Catholic Church and the rise of Protestantism in England.
Anne gave him 'Obedience of a Christian Man' by William Tyndale.

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

Protestant. Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour.
Very sick, didn't live long.

Mary Tutor

1553 - 1558

Catholic.
Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Protestant.
Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
1) Brought about religious stability while making England a Protestant state (shows political skill).
2) defeated Spain at war
2) began the British Empire

Oliver Cromwell

1653 - 1658

Republican government.
called "Protectorate"
religious toleration
regulated economy