British History II

Main

Hastings Trial

1788

Burke declares that Hastings sold opium to soldiers and violated the EIC contract

Hastings Acquitted

1791

Becomes a hero; mobilizes forces in new environment (India);

Anti Corn Law Leagure

1838

Richard Cobden became a major figure of the free trade movement; said it would bring more peace

Kennington Common

1848

Chartists organized a demonstration to petition to change the political system in Britain; ultimately failed

The Great Exhibition

1851

Free trade celebrated in Britain; Britain's industrial power; Crystal Palace; new social harmony after Chartism uprising

Morant Bay

1865

Governor John Eyre brutally suppresses a rebellion; Thomas Carlyle claims he should be thanked; motivated by racial superiority

Trade Unions Congress

1868

Coordinating the efforts of all workers; unskilled workers increasingly organized

Great Depression

1873 - 1896

Discovery of gold in Africa; end of free trade (except Britain),

Independent Labor Party

1893

Thomas Hardy; increasing need to represent the working class;

Taff Vale

1901

Decided workers could be sued for days lost due to striking; caused support to flow to the labor party

Women Social and Political Union

1903

Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst start a militant-type campaign; force-feeding by the government = rape

Black Friday

1910

300 suffragists are attacked by the police

National Unemployed Workers Movement

1921

The General Strike

1926

Fear of socialist revolution; defeat of union/miners

The Ministry of Information

1939

Coopers Snooper's; First time government collects what people think and feel

British Evacuation of France

1940

A national effort; seen as a uniting symbol of the war

William Beveridge's Social Insurance and Allied Services

1942

Morale and victory now linked to promises of social reconstruction

Butler's Education

1944

Allows local authorities to create comprehensive schools

The British Welfare State

1945 - 1951

Empire Windrush

1947

Greatly increasing immigration to the UK

The Coronation

1953

Elizabeth crowned in a lavish ceremony; commitment to people; emotional ritual

BBC/ITV

1955

Rise of consumer culture;

Notting Hill Riots

1958

Racially motivated riots against blacks

Robbins Report

1962

Expanded higher education; focus on the sciences

Universities

1968

Become centers for student culture, politics, revolt

Stagflation/Winter of Discontent

1978

Huge inflation; industrial relations low; oil crisis

Reigns

Monarchs/PMs

Queen Victoria

1837 - 1901

Edwardian Era (Edward VII)

1901 - 1910

Winston Churchill (MP)

1940 - 1945

Churchill (MP)

1951 - 1955

Margaret Thatcher

1979 - 1990

Written Works

Charles Darwin Origins of Species

1859

The Strange Death of Liberal England

1935

Dangerfield; liberalism erodes; sphere of rational political action erodes

John Maynard Keynes : General Theory of Unemployment, Interest, and Money

1936

Funnel money to public spending to stimulate economy

Beveridge Report

1942

Proposed the reform of the British social system; became the foundation of the welfare state; National Insurance; National Health Care

Enoch Powell River of Blood

1968

Basically that all of the immigrants will start to take all of the natives' jobs and that the white man will one day become the slave

The Female Eunuch

1970

Women are objects of consumption according to society

Politics

Regulating Act

1773

Claimed activities in India are the business of the government; created the governor-general position

Corn Laws Enacted

1815

High grain prices; landowners made more money; symbolized old corruption; brought middle and working class together

The People's Charter

1838

Wanted expansion on the Great Reforms of 1832; Universal Male Suffrage. Secret Ballot, Annual Parliamentary Elections, Pay for Members of Parliament, End property requirements for MPs

Robert Peel repeals the Corn Laws

1846

PM; hugely unpopular with Tories; Inspired by the famine in Ireland; Huge triumph for free trade

The Contagious Diseases (CD) Acts

1864

Prostitutes blamed for venereal disease

Second Reform Bill

1867

Allow voting of those who have a household; new liberal ideas; reiteration between manliness and character

Married Women Property Act

1870

Women not allowed to own property

Third Reform Bill

1884

Extended Suffrage

Criminal Amendment Act

1885

Re-criminalized homosexuality, strengthened legislation against prostitution

Labor Representation Committee

1900

Eventually forms into the labor party

Aliens Act

1905

First British anti-immigration law; Jews coming to UK from Russian pogroms; blow to liberal Britain

Children Act

1908

Formed children courts, reform for Juveniles

Labor Exchanges Act

1909

Government helps to move labor around to fight unemployment; regulating wages

National Insurance Act

1911

Everyone had to contribute to to fight sickness and unemployment

Representation of People Act

1918

Shaming men who did not serve in the war; "white feather" by women; vote given to older women = irony because younger women helped in war

All men and Women can vote

1928

Essential Orders Act

1941

Introduced conscription

Social Insurance Act

1946

NHS created two years later; unprepared for the rising cost of welfare state

Sexual Offenses Act

1967

Decriminalized homosexuality

Legalization of Abortion

1967

Commonwealth Immigration Act

1968

Prevented certain immigrants from entering the UK

Maureen Colquhoun

1977

First openly gay MP

Ireland

Irish Famine

1846 - 1852

Potato blight; 1.5 million died, 1 million immigrated,

Easter Rising

1916

Irish seize the general post office; Britain executes many of the leaders = turns them into martyrs.

Irish Free State

1922

Dominion status;

IRA attacks in London

1982

Foreign Policy

Battle of Plassey

1757

Established EIC rule over Bengal, which then expanded into India

Outlaw of the Sati

1829

Bentinck outlaws the Sati in India

First Opium War

1839 - 1842

Chinese attempt to ban all trade from Britain due to the large amount of Opium going out;

The Niger Expedition

1841

Attempt to "civilize" the slaves; complete failure; hardened ideas about race in Britain.

Treaty of Nanking

1842

Severe blow to Qing dynasty; forced to pay reparations for the Opium War; British claim Hong Kong

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860

The Indian Revolt

1857

Establishment of direct rule over India (abolition of the EIC); End the of "liberal" empire

Treaty of Tientsin

1858

Opened more Chinese ports; allowed free trade of Opium; and permitted foreign legations in Beijing

Convention of Peking

1860

Effectively ended the second Opium war; foreign agreements between China and other foreign nations regarding Tientsin

British Occupation of Egypt

1882

Ottoman Empire falters

Kitchener Invades Sudan

1890

After French enter the area, Kitchener takes revenge for Gordon

The South African War

1899 - 1902

Boer and British tensions; huge disaster; first anti-imperialist ideas begin to emerge

The Great War

1914 - 1918

Statute of Westminster

1931

Gave legislative independence to the dominions of Britain

Hitler Invades Poland

1939

India Indepence

1947

NATO Formed

1949

The Suez Canal

1956

Nasser nationalizes the canal, Britain attempt to take it back with France; US steps in with IMF blocking

Falkland War

1982

Argentina attempts to claim the Falkland Islands; Thatcher steps in and prevents it; guarantees her reelection