Power Without Privilege: The Case of Jose Armando Nunez Duarte

Erickson Developmental Stage

Infancy (birth - 18 mo.) Trust v. Mistrust

1960 - June 1961

Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.

Early Childhood (2-3 yrs) Autonomy v. Shame/Doubt

July 1961 - 1963

Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.

Preschool (3 - 5 yrs) Initiative vs. Guilt

1963 - 1965

Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.

School Age (6 - 11 yrs) Industry vs. Inferiority

1965 - 1971

Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.

Adolescence (12-18) Identity vs Role Confusion

1972 - 1978

Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.

Young Adulthood (18-40 yrs) Intimacy vs. Isolation

1978 - 2000

Middle Adulthood (40 - 65 yrs) Generativity vs. Stagnation

2000 - 2025

Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.

Mandy

Birth

1960

born healthy in Santo Domingo. First, and only male child born to eternally loving, devoted parents. Mandy 'could do no wrong.'

Mandy begins to work at his father's Bodega

1972

Held back in 7th grade

1973

Learns english. Becomes de facto family interpreter.

1975

Experiences tremendous physical growth

1975

drops out of high school. begins using drugs.

1976

works independently at bodega. begins selling marijuana.

1978

Marries Sofia and has first child, Paula.

1978 - 1986

Arrested and Incarcerated

1985 - 1992

Divorced.

1986

Begins self exploration after group therapy with social worker.

1987

Attends father's funeral in shackles.

1989

released from prison. Moves in with Dona Daniela.

1992

buys third bodega. begins to accumulate wealth.

1995

Mandy's daughter has three children, with whom he has trouble connecting.

2000

Mother's health and economics of Harlem force sale of two bodegas.

2008

Spends savings on Mom's health care.

2012

Relationship with grandson gives Mandy joy.

2013

Family

living on outskirts of Santo Domingo in rural area. relatively well-off.

1960 - 1970

Migration to New York City, Hunt's Point, Bronx

1970 - 1975

Mandy is 10 yrs old. Non-english speaker living in impoverished, urban area.

Family's status changes to low-income.

1970 - 1990

Obtains U.S. residency and eventually citizenship

1971

Move to New Jersey

1975

Father

Begins alcohol dependency to cope with stress

1972

Uses family savings to buy first bodega

1972

Buys second bodega.

1977

Death

1989

Mother

Adores Mandy. Strained relationship with daughters.

1980 - 2012

Visits Mandy every Sunday. Maintains his reputation with friends and family.

1985 - 1994

Mandy moves in.

1992

Has experimental surgery and does not recover. Death.

2012

Sisters

Maria obtains M.P.H. Struggles with alcoholism.

1988

Laura in high school. Wants to become writer.

1988

Gladys has 5 children. Manages home and husband's gambling.

1990

Sisters receive nothing from Mom's estate. Alienation from Mandy continues.

2012

Macro

Trujillio Assassinated. Regime ends.

May 30, 1961

After Trujillo was assassinated, and the power structure on the island changed, travel amongst Dominicans became a possibility, and in some cases a necessity. Eventually, under Joaquin Balaguer, all who chose to leave the Dominican Republic in search of better lives were given every opportunity to go.

U.S. Immigration Policy Changes to remove quotas

1965

"Ladies and gentlemen, the bronx is burning."

1977

urban renewal, redlining, unofficial city policies such as "shrinkage," and other economic conditions make it more profitable to burn buildings for their insurance money than to renovate.

Increasing gentrification of Washington Heights/Harlem

2004