France

AP European History Course - France

Politics

Invasion of Italy

1494

Religious altercations. French driven out of Italy.

Established as a dominent European power

1648

Came with the end of the Thirty Years' War and the Peace of Westphalia.
Gained territory of Alsce

Second empire

1852 - 1870

Louis Napoleon = Emperor Napoleon III
He didn't want to share power with the National Assembly
Restricted the Assembly
Ended due to mass unpopularity

Third Republic

1870 - 1940

Proclaimed by Parisian republicans
National Assebly VS Paris Commune
Dreyfus Affair
Severed ties with Catholic church

United Nations formed

1945

European Economic Community

1957

To cooperate with the Marshal Plan

Student rebellion

1968

Along with strikes from factories
Against current politics (communism? socialism?)

Economic

Colbert's reforms

1663 - 1683

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Mercantilism = regulation of economic activities by and for the state
Changed the flow of trade (sell more, buy less)\
New industries (eg. cloth, mirrors, rugs)
Encouraged talented craftsmen to move to France
High taxes

Crédit Mobilier founded

1852

New industrial bank

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Marshall Plan

1947

Social

Black Death arrives

1348

From: a galley docked in Marseilles
Spread to: Languedoc and Spain

Peasant Revolts

1357 - 1420

Fur-collar crimes.
Guild systems started to change. Example: rose entrance fees, recruitment got harder due to economic trouble.

Joan of Arc

1429

Rallies French monarchy against the English. Victorious.

Huguenot revolt

1625

Sieged the city of La Rochelle

Standardization of French language

1694

Black death dissapears

1720

French Revolution

1789 - 1791

Caused by poor economic conditions and an unfair representation of the masses in politics.
Resulted in the First French Republic and a constitutional monarchy.

Tennis Court Oath

06/20/1789

When the Estates General were locked out of the National Assembly, they all gathered in an indoor tennis court and agreed not to disband until a new constitution had been written.

Storming the Bastille

07/14/1789

100s of peasants stormed the prison for arms and gunpowder.

March on Versailles

10/05/1789

Women of Paris march to Versailles. They invaded the National Assembly, only able to be stopped by the National Guard. (They wanted to kill Marie Antoinette.)

Industrial Revolution arrives

1815

Second French Revolution

1830

French throne changes from Charles X to Louis-Philippe
Establishment of a constitutional Monarchy

Utopian Socialism

1835

Height of...
Auguste Comte wrote System of Positive Philosophy

Revolution

1848

Out with Louis Philippe
In with Louis Napoleon
Resulted in a semi-authoritarian regime

Louis Pasteur

1860

Develops germ theory of disease
During the decade

Women's movement

1970

Took more jobs
Lower birth rate

Military

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

France VS England.

Over successor to French Throne.

Resulted in French victory and Charles of Valois taking the throne.

Joan of Arc aided the French army.

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

France + Austria VS Britain + Prussia
Resulted in Austrian victory and the Peace of Paris

Battle of Waterloo

06/18/1815

France VS Great Britain + Netherlands
Napoleon's ultimate defeat

Franco-Prussian War

1870 - 1871

France VS Prussia and Germany
Resulted in German victory and the Treaty of Frankfurt

World War I

1914 - 1918

France was part of the Central Powers, who won.

Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations.

World War II

1939 - 1945

France sided with Allies, who won.

Religious

Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

Pope resides in Avignon, France. He was persuaded by King Philip. Caused poverty.

Great Schism

1377 - 1418

Pope Clement VII in Avignon while Pope Urban VI was in Rome.

Concordat of Bologna

1516

Between Francis I and Pope Leo X. Pope would collect revenue from French churches, while Francis has the right to elect who he wants as clerics.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Catholics VS Huguenots (Calvinists)
Resulted in Protestant king Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes (religious toleration of Huguenots)

St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

08/24/1572

Catholic attack on Calvinists during a wedding that would help reconcile the Huguenots and the Catholics.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes

1685

By Louis XIV as an attempt to control religion.

Cultural

Baroque architecture arrives

1615

Palais du Luxemburg by Salomon de Brosse

French Classisism

1661 - 1700

Resembled Renaissance Italy.
Logical, orderly, but not realistic.
Nicholas Poussin = painter.
Molière (Jean-Baptiste Poquelin) = play write, director, actor, stage manager
Jean Racine = play write. wrote about the power of women

Philosophs

1715 - 1770

Had Enlightenment ideas
Hated religious intolerance
Promoted liberty, opposed tyranny
Brought forth study of social sciences
Examples: Montesquieu, Voltaire, Madame du Châtelet, Diderot

Spirit of Laws

1748

by Montesquieu

The Social Contract

1762

by Rousseu

Romanticism arrives

1820

Eugène Delacroix = author, painter

Liberty Leading the People

1830

by Delacroix

Realism arrives

1840

To represent matter realistically and truthfully
Combated romanticism

Growth of public education

1880

Modernism arrives

1900

Social welfare legislation

1910

Child welfare
Insurance for employees

Dadaism and Surrealism arrive

1925

Art movement
Deliberately nonsensical

Leaders

Charles IV

1322 - 1328

Philip VI

1328 - 1350

Richelieu

1624 - 1643

Policy = total subordination of all groups and institutions to the French monarchy
Foreign policy = destruction of Hapsburg territories
Began French Absolutism

Louis XV

1715 - 1775

Ordered the Jesuits out of France

Louis XVI

1774 - 1792

Reinstated old Parliaments
Married Marie Antoinette

Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1815

Restructure of educational system
1802: crowned himself Emperor