Cold War

Main

Development of Cold War

Marshall Plan

June 1947

U.S. gives $13B in aid of Europe's recovery because U.S. realized that communist advance was successful in countries with economic problems.

Containment Policy

July 1947

Policy of containment aimed to keep communism within its current boundaries and prevent Soviet aggression into additional countries.

Berlin Airlift

July 1948 - May 1949

American and British airplanes flew 200,000 flights carrying over 2 million tons of supplies into Berlin.

Soviet Atomic Bomb

1949

Soviet Union explodes its first atomic bomb

Formation of NATO

April 1949

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) formed by Canada, USA, France, Belgium, Denmark and many other countries. They all agreed that if any one of them was attached they would all provide aid.

Soviets lift blockade

May 1949

Soviets end blockade of Berlin

Federal Republic of Germany formed

September 1949

Also called West Germany

Formation of the Warsaw Pact

1955

Soviet Union joined with Hungary, Albania, East Germany, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia in a formal military alliance.

Nikita Khrushchev

1955

Khrushchev became the leader of the Soviet Union

Sputnik I

1957

The Soviets sent Sputnik I, the first human-made space satellite, to orbit the Earth,

Fidel Castro

1959

Left-wing revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrows Batista and sets up a Soviet-supported totalitarian regime in Cuba.

Berlin Wall

August 1961

In order to stop the flow of refugees from East to West, the East German government began construction of a wall separating East Berlin from West Berlin.

Cuban Missile Crisis - Start

1962

Soviet Union began to place missiles in Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis - blockade

October 1962

President Kennedy found out about missiles in Cuba, and put a blockade around Cuba against Soviet ships. Soviet Union agreed to withdraw missiles if U.S. agreed not to invade Cuba

Vietnam War

1964 - 1973

U.S. withdraws Vietnam

1973

President Nixon made an agreement with North Vietnam to withdraw U.S. troops from Vietnam

Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

Soviet spreads influence

1945 - 1947

Soviet Union takes over control of East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, Poland, and Hungary

Anti-intellectual campaign

1946

Stalin said that all literary and scientific works must conform to the needs of the state

Czechoslovakia taken over

1948

Stalin's death

1953

Protests in Poland

1956

Protects erupt in Poland. Poles elect Gomulka as first secretary. Some reforms, but Poland remains loyal to the Warsaw Pact.

Hungarian Rebellion

1956

The leader of Hungary, Imre Nagy, declared Hungary to be a free state and promised to hold free elections. The Soviet Army attacked Hungary and reestablished control. Nagy was executed two years later.

Khrushchev deposed

1962

Soviet leaders vote Khrushchev out of office while he is away on vacation

Czech Reforms

1968

In January 1968, Dubcek was elected first secretary of the communist party in Czechoslovakia. He put in some reforms including freedom of press and speech. Called Prague Spring. In August 1968 the Soviet Army invaded and crushed the reform movement and replaced Dubcek with Husak.