WORLD HISTORY

Indus Valley (Pakistan and India)

Indus Valley

2600 BCE - 1900 BCE

Fell because of the environment
Helped by Monsoons
Harappa and Mojenjo-Daro
Urbanized, Unified, Centralized

Egypt

Nile flooded in September Pharoas Ma'at: Kinda like a divine right to rule (given by the gods) Memphis & Thebes Hieroglyphics (Early Dynastic Period)

Old Kingdom

2575 BCE - 2134 BCE

Pyramids

Middle Kingdom

2040 BCE - 1640 BCE

Government officials take control
Hyksos attack and gain power during this time
Arts and sciences

New Kingdom

1532 BCE - 1070 BCE

Hatshepsut
Akhenaten changes things up
Territory
Collapsed bc internal disorder and foreign invasions

Mesopotamia (Iraq)

Sumerians=Cuneiform and first people in Mesopotamia Ziggurats (pyramid-like temples), Bronze (3000 BCE), base-60 number system)

Sumerians

3500 BCE - 2350 BCE

CUNEIFORM

Babylonians

1900 BCE - 1600 BCE

Hammurabi's code

Ancient Middle East

Hittites (Anatolia)

1700 BCE - 1200 BCE

Iron

Phoenicians

1100 BCE - 539 BC

Syria and Lebanon
Timber and purple dye
Carthage (colony-rival of ROME)
First alphabet

Neo-Assyrian Empire

911 BCE - 612 BCE

Large states
Horseback warfare (took Mesopotamia and Egypt)
Collapsed b/c of Neo-Babylonians
WAR

Persians

550 BCE - 331 BCE

Cyrus the Great (controlled Iran)
Darius the Great (--> Turkey, Libya, India)
Postal system, roads, currency, flexible govt.)
Zoroastrianism
Satraps=local officials
Fought with Greeks
Fell to Alexander the Great of Macedonia

Islam

600 CE

Europe

Aegians (Greek)

2000 BCE - 1150 BCE

Crete (Minoan) and Greek mainland (Mycenaean LINEAR B[conquests])
Trojan War (Mycenaeans and Trojans)
TRADE
Joined together to become Greeks (Hellenes)
Low pol and soc development
Hellenic Culture
SCIENCE (from Egypt)
Celebration of life
Playwrights
Philosophy + art

Archaic Period (Greek)

800 BCE - 500 BCE

Couldn't unite because of natural barriers
Sparta
Rigid
Slaves
Dictator
Feared army
Athens
Culturally and technologically advanced
Naval strength
Oligarchy
Women=inferior
Created democracy (Pericles)
Women and slaves were not included
Fought with Persians

Roman Republic

509 BCE - 31 BCE

Monarchy (ruled by the Etruscans)
Rebellion -> Roman Republic
Tension between Plebeian (lower) and Patrician (upper) classes
Plebeians gained power but not equality
Punic Wars (Rome v. Carthage [Phoenician colony]) Rome victory
Senate (dominated by Patricians) governing power
2 elected consuls for executive powers
Rapid expansion -> probs
Farmers = poverty bc of low prices and use of slaves
Civil wars -> single ruler (Julius Caesar)

Classical Period (Greek)

500 BCE - 338 BCE

Persians tried to invade
Peloponnesian War (Sparta [winner] and Athens)
Weakened city-states
Persian influence
Conquered by Macedonia (Alexander the Great)
Alexander the Great
Military campaigns
Took over Persian Empire
Spread Greek culture

Celts

400 BCE

No written language
Not united
"uncivilized"
Widespread
Oral Tradition
Polytheistic
Druids (priests)

Roman Empire

31 BCE - 476 CE

Ruler = Julius' adopted son Octavian (Caesar Augustus)
Restored order, revived strength and wealth, and gave himself power
Roman lands = Spain -> Asia Minor, British Isles -> N. Africa
East side broke away -> Byzantine Empire
Over extension = hard to govern the West
Military gained power
Barbarian invasions, sacked by Goths
Rome preserved Greek culture
CHRISTIANITY
Aqueducts
LAW CODE

Byzantine Empire

395 CE - 1453 CE

Capital @ Constantinople
Good location (between Black & Medi seas)
Connection between europe and middle east
Justinian (ruler who had architectural renovation)
Body of Civil Law

Africa

Nubia

2000 BCE - 1504 CE

Controlled by Egypt -> later faded
Corridor of trade
Kingdom of Kush
Kingdom of Meroe
Supported agriculture
IRON
Collapse = changing trade patterns and environmental factors

Americas

Olmec

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

Gulf of Mexico
Mother civilization
Art, architecture, religion
NO RIVERS

Chavin

850 BCE - 250 BCE

Oldest of the Andeans
NO RIVERS
Llamas

Teotihuacan

150 BCE - 750 CE

Mexico city
Largest city
Taken over by Mayans

Asia

Shang Dynasty

1750 BCE - 1027 BCE

Ruled a state (king traveled a lot)
WARRIOR ARISTOCRACY
Broad borders (campaigns against barbarians)
TRADE (ivory, silk, jade)
Pictograms (writing)
Religion (divination, fortune telling, sacrifices, ancestor worship)
Thought they were the center of the world

Aryan Invasion (India)

1500 BCE

Invaded India
They (light skin) conquered the Dravidians (dark skinned) Indians
Warrior aristocracy & enslavement
Blended culture = Sanskrit, Vedic & Hindu religions, caste system (can't be changed)

Zhou Dynasty

1027 BCE - 221 BCE

Overthrew the Shang
Civil Wars (Warring States Period)
Mandate of Heavan
Legalism (strict), Confucianism (roles, hierarchy), Daoism (accept the world as it is)

Mauryan Empire (India)

324 BCE - 184 BCE

Rarely unified
strong military
trade networks (cotton)
Ashoka (emperor)
Converted to Buddhism (peace b/t Hindu/Buddhists)
Encouraged trade with India
Collapsed bc of enemy attacks

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 206 BCE

Shi Huangdi = turned China into a centralized and dictatorial state
STANDARDIZATION
Advanced army and New tech
roads
GREAT WALL OF CHINA
Legalism

Han Dynasty

206 BCE - 220 CE

Brought on by rebellion after Shi Huangdi's death
Efficiently governed
Emperor Wu Ti (expansion)
Tributary systems
Effective administration
Postal/tax services
Roads and canals
Monopoly on silk
Economic slump -> collapse

The Nara State (Japan)

300 CE - 794 CE

Natural barriers
Ruled by Yamoto fam
Shinto (religion)

Gupta Empire (India)

320 CE - 550 CE

Smaller/less centralized
Thrived culturally and economically
tolerance of religions
Created decimal system, pi, zero
Fell bc of outside pressure

Sui Dynasty (China)

589 CE - 618 CE

Reunified China
Expanded its borders (military conquests)

Tang Dynasty (China)

618 CE - 906 CE

Tributary system
Advanced infrastructure (Grand Canal)
Silk
Took a bigger part in the Indian Ocean trade network
Cultural patrons/education
Peasant rebellion and military disasters weakened them

Song Empire (China)

960 CE - 1279 CE

Declined bc of war with neighbors
Primary threat -> Liao empire (north)
Paid tribute to the Liao but later defeated them with the Jurchen
The Jurchen then created their own empire (the Jin) and turned on the Song
Urbanization (steady pop growth)
Junks (trading vessels)
Sci and Tech advanced
*compass
*gunpowder
Neo-Confucianism
CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS
Chan Buddhism
Foot Binding

Mongols

1200

Genghis Khan and his sons led conquests
His grandsons divided the Mongol empire a

Yuan Empire (China)

1271 CE - 1368 CE

Half of the Mongol Empire
Controlled by Kublai Khan
Adopted Buddhism and Mandarin
Military campaigns
Tried to conquer Japan and Java
Repaired roads etc (silk road)
Black plague
Civil wars and rebellion