Plate tectonics, theory's, and scientists

Main

Glomar Challenger

Glomar Challenger

1968 - 1983

Active lifetime

Continued by the JOIDES Resolution

1985

The JOIDES Revolution continued the work of Glomar Challenger in 1985. The JOIDES Revolution was a more advanced drilling ship.

Alfred Logan Wegener

Alfred Logan Wegener

1880 - 1930

Lifetime

Travels

1906

Alfred Wegener traveled to Greenland and studied polar air circulation. He returned again in 1912-1913. In 1930, Wegener made his way to Greenland was his last expedition. There he died.

Pangaea

1910

Wegener found many things that led him to believe that at one point all the continents were connected. He found fossils that's matched on opposite sides of the Atlantic, rock sequences, and how roughly the continents fit together.

Drafted in army

1914

Wegener was drafted into the army and was soon sent to work work as a weather forecaster due to an injury.

The Origin of Continents and Oceans

1915

Wegener's first book was published in 1915. His book was about how all the continents were once connected to form one landmass, Pangaea.

Disbelief in Pangaea

1930

Most scientist rejected Wegener's idea of how the earth once was.

Arthur Holmes

Arthur Holmes

January 14, 1890 - September 20, 1965

Lifetime

1st guess on Earth's age

1913

Before Holmes even had his doctoral degree, he estimated the earths age was four billion years old.

The Age of the Earth

1913

Holmes wrote this book to tell people how old the earth is.

Convection

1930

When Holmes came up with convection, he could explain Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. Currents of heat and thermal expansion in the earths mantle could force the continents together or away from each other.

Hugo Benioff

Hugo Benioff

1899 - 1968

Lifetime

Seismograph

1929

Benioff started to design the seismograph in 1929. It was placed in service in 1931 and was in its finished form in 1934.

Mantle surface waves

1953

Benioff found linear strain records.

Kiyoo Wadati

Kiyoo Wadati

1902 - 1995

Lifetime

Wadati-Benioff Zone

1924 - 1927

Wadati found evidence of deep earthquakes. He called them Wadati-Benioff Zone. They are deep earthquake zones along ocean trenches which is now the theory of plate tectonics.

Paper

1928

In 1928, Kiyoo wrote a paper about shallow and deep waves and their differences.

Alexander Du Toit

Alexander Du Toit

March 14, 1878 - February 15, 1948

Lifetime

Gondwanaland

1937

Gondwana is the Southern Hemisphere: Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, Australia, Arabian peninsula, and the Indian subcontinent.

Laurasia

1937

Laurasia was an ancient continent in the northern hemisphere. It included North America, Europe, and Asia.

Our Wandering Continents

1937

Alexander wrote this book about Gondwana.

Harry H. Hess

Harry H. Hess

1906 - 1969

Lifetime

Seafloor spreading

1960 - 1965

Hess believed molten material erupts from earth mantle along mid ocean ridges. As the magma cools, it's pushed further away from the ridges. The closer the rocks are to the continent, the older the rocks are. The closer the rocks are to the ridge the younger they are.

Sir Edward Bullard

Sir Edward Bullard

September 21, 1907 - April 3, 1980

Lifetime

Knighted

1953

For Bullards most important contribution the study of geomagnestism, his theory of the geomagnetic dynamo, got him knighted.

Professor of geophysics

1964

Bullard became professor of geophysics and director of the department of geodesy and geophysics at the University of Cambridge.

Supporting Alfred Wegener's theory

1967

Bullards studies shows that Western Europe and Americas were almost perfectly matched to a depth of 500 fathoms, and he the. He found radioactively dated African rocks that matched to similar rocks in South America.

Robert S. Dietz

Robert S. Dietz

1914 - 1955

Lifetime

Expedition

1946 - 1947

Dietz served as an oceanographer in Antarctica. He went on many more.

1st fracture zone

1952

Dietz finds the first fracture zone in the pacific.

Professor

1977

Dietz became a professor at Arizona State University teaching geology.

Atlantis

Atlantis

1931 - 1966

Sailed more than 700,000 miles in its life time

Drummond Matthews

Drummond Matthews

1931 - 1977

Lifetime

Senior assistant

1960 - 1966

Matthews was the senior assistant in research in the department of geodesy and geophysics, and a Research Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.

Reader in Marine Geology

1971

In 1971, Matthews became the Reader in Marie Geology.

Structure and evolution of continental crust

1979 - 1990

Matthews studied structure and evolution of continental crust with BIRPS (British Institution reflection Profiling Syndicate).

Director

1982

Matthews becomes BIRPS first director.

Fred Vine

Fred Vine

1939 - 2013

Lifetime

Magnetic Anomalies over Ocean Ridges

1963

Vines paper, Magnetic Anomalies over Ocean Ridges, is proof that continental drift did occur.

Technology

Sonar system and magnetometers

1920 - 1950

The sonar system is a device that bounces sound waves off underground objects that then records the echoes of these sound waves. It allows scientists to map the mid-ocean ridges. In the 1950's, scientists used magnetometers variations on the ocean floor. Age rocks helped prove that mid-ocean ridges create new sea floor.