The JOIDES Revolution continued the work of Glomar Challenger in 1985. The JOIDES Revolution was a more advanced drilling ship.
Alfred Wegener traveled to Greenland and studied polar air circulation. He returned again in 1912-1913. In 1930, Wegener made his way to Greenland was his last expedition. There he died.
Wegener found many things that led him to believe that at one point all the continents were connected. He found fossils that's matched on opposite sides of the Atlantic, rock sequences, and how roughly the continents fit together.
Wegener was drafted into the army and was soon sent to work work as a weather forecaster due to an injury.
Wegener's first book was published in 1915. His book was about how all the continents were once connected to form one landmass, Pangaea.
Most scientist rejected Wegener's idea of how the earth once was.
Before Holmes even had his doctoral degree, he estimated the earths age was four billion years old.
Holmes wrote this book to tell people how old the earth is.
When Holmes came up with convection, he could explain Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift. Currents of heat and thermal expansion in the earths mantle could force the continents together or away from each other.
Benioff started to design the seismograph in 1929. It was placed in service in 1931 and was in its finished form in 1934.
Benioff found linear strain records.
Wadati found evidence of deep earthquakes. He called them Wadati-Benioff Zone. They are deep earthquake zones along ocean trenches which is now the theory of plate tectonics.
In 1928, Kiyoo wrote a paper about shallow and deep waves and their differences.
Gondwana is the Southern Hemisphere: Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, Australia, Arabian peninsula, and the Indian subcontinent.
Laurasia was an ancient continent in the northern hemisphere. It included North America, Europe, and Asia.
Alexander wrote this book about Gondwana.
Hess believed molten material erupts from earth mantle along mid ocean ridges. As the magma cools, it's pushed further away from the ridges. The closer the rocks are to the continent, the older the rocks are. The closer the rocks are to the ridge the younger they are.
For Bullards most important contribution the study of geomagnestism, his theory of the geomagnetic dynamo, got him knighted.
Bullard became professor of geophysics and director of the department of geodesy and geophysics at the University of Cambridge.
Bullards studies shows that Western Europe and Americas were almost perfectly matched to a depth of 500 fathoms, and he the. He found radioactively dated African rocks that matched to similar rocks in South America.
Dietz served as an oceanographer in Antarctica. He went on many more.
Dietz finds the first fracture zone in the pacific.
Dietz became a professor at Arizona State University teaching geology.
Sailed more than 700,000 miles in its life time
Matthews was the senior assistant in research in the department of geodesy and geophysics, and a Research Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
In 1971, Matthews became the Reader in Marie Geology.
Matthews studied structure and evolution of continental crust with BIRPS (British Institution reflection Profiling Syndicate).
Matthews becomes BIRPS first director.
Vines paper, Magnetic Anomalies over Ocean Ridges, is proof that continental drift did occur.
The sonar system is a device that bounces sound waves off underground objects that then records the echoes of these sound waves. It allows scientists to map the mid-ocean ridges. In the 1950's, scientists used magnetometers variations on the ocean floor. Age rocks helped prove that mid-ocean ridges create new sea floor.