Germany - Rise of Hitler

Main

First Moroccan Crisis

1905 - 1906

Fact that Germany tried to break up alliances (B&F) showed G's threat and preparation for war

Anglo- Russian Entente

1907 - 1908

Served to forge a political alliance in fear of growing strength & influence of Imperial Germany. Basis= fear of growing G (people believe = main cause of the war)

Barvaria Crisis

1908 - 1909

Diplomatic triumph for Germany- strengthened alliance with A-H
Highlighted weakness of Triple Entente
Russia publicly humiliated

Balkan Wars

1912 - 1913

First- March- Serbia & Bulgaria
May= Greece and B signed treaty
8 oct Montenegro war on Turkey (pushed back in weeks)

Second- Serbian Troops entered border into Albania- told troops to withdraw in a week and was back by G (success)
International tensions and local wars avoided again

War Council

1912

Kaiser livid= B said they would stand by F unconditionally so called a meeting of army and navy chiefs.
G started preparing for war- decided to stand by A-H
Tirpitz warned against war

Schieffen Plan

August 1914 - September 1914

July Crisis

July 1917 - August 1917

Ebert-Groener Agreement

1918 - 1919

Stopped fighting on two fronts

1918

Armistice signed

11 Nov 1918 - 12 Nov 1918

Elections for the new National Assembly

1919

Liebknecht and Luxemburg murdered

1919

Spartacist Union held their first congress in Berlin

1919

Revo uprising in berlin (spartacist)

1919

Red Bavaria

March 1919 - June 1919

Kapp-Luttwitz Putsch

March 1920 - April 1920

Spa Conference

July 1920

Paris Conference

January 1921

Ruhr Crisis

1923

Payments resumed

September 1923

Munich Putsch

November 1923 - December 1923

Rentenmark established

November 1923

The Dawes Plan

1924

Diplomacy

1933 - 1935

The Enabling Act

1933

-Gov gave power to pass lawsto cabinet & allowed gov to alter the constitution as it saw fit
-Granted H 4 years of power

Boycott- Radicalisation in Nazi Germany (Case Study)

1933

The Reichstag Fire

February 1933

Protest at the repression of the working class (Van der Lubbe)

Potsdam Day

March 1933

Hitler made speech in front of hindenburg to impress

Reich Ministry of Popular Enlightenment & Propaganda was created

March 1933

Goebbels as head

Independent unions= abolished and replaced by DAF

May 1933

DAF- German Labour Front

offices of the Trade Unions were ransacked

May 1933

The Reich Food State

September 1933

took control of overall planning & organisation of agriculture

Editors Law

October 1933

Racially pure journalism

Schonheit der Arbeit & Kradft durch Freude

November 1933

'Beauty of Labour' and 'Strength Through joy' - Ley

'Battle for production'

1934

to increase the production of grain- unsuccessful due to lack of new machinery etc...

Operation Hummingbird

June 1934 - July 1934

Aimed at SA leadership
Purged

The Night of the Long Knives

June 1934 - July 1934

'The New Plan'

September 1934

Nuremburg Laws

1935

Conscription reintroduced

1935

60% of all G youth belonged to H Youth

1935

Made compulsory by the Hitler Youth Law

Reoccupation of the Rhineland

1936 - 1937

'League of Young Girls' & 'League of German Girls' compulsory

1936

Oath made in 1939

All state officials directly responsible to Hitler

1937

an elite school system set up

1937

Hossbach Conference

November 1937

alarm bells for the adventurism of H's foreign policy

Seizure of Czechoslovakia

1938 - 1939

Anchluss with Austria

1938 - 1939

Kristallnacht

1938

H took over the leadership of the army

January 1938

Conquest of Poland

1939 - 1940

Ministerial Council for the Defence Reich set up

1939

Bouhler and Aktion T4

1939

The Bomb Plot

1944

Stauffenburg offered to assassinate Hitler with bomb- H sirvived

First and Second World War

First World War

1914 - 1918

Second World War

1939 - 1945

Political Parties

Political parties

1890 - 1914

The Conservative party- Junkers & land interests
Free Conservatives- Commercial, industrialists & wealthy
National Liberals- Industrial & protestant middle class
Progressive Party- Middle class
The Centre Party- Catholic church, non-socialist& middle/lower class
Social Democratic Party- working class after Bismark's Anti-Socialost Laws lapsed in 1890

Spartacist broke away from USPD

1918

Creation of DAP

1919

German Workers' Party

Development of NSDAP

1920 - 1923

Key Figures- Rohm, Streicher, Goring
Key Features- SA, Volkischer Beobachter (Newspaper in 1921), propaganda

NSDAP- 25 Points Programme

February 1920

-Revision of T of V
- End of reparations
- Lebensraum
-Volksgemeinschaft
-Anti-Semitism

Hitler made Fuhrer of NSDAP

July 1921

Party membership was compulsory for civil servants

1939

People

Von Bulow

1900 - 1909

-powerful political influence, kept Kaiser on his side, 2nd & 3rd Navy Law, Flottenpolitik, extended railway

High tax= high food prices, Weltpolitik

Bethmann

1909 - 1917

-Good intentions, administrator, Imperial Insurance Code, the Army Bill, Redistributed land.

Zabern Affair

Stresemann led new gov

August 1923

Hitler In Power

1933 - 1945

Schacht as president of the Reichsbank

May 1933

Hindenburg dies

August 1934

Himmler appointed as chief of German Police

June 1936

Hitler ended battle for control of the police by appointing Himmler as chief of police

Policies etc

Weltpolitik

1890 - 1910

'Place in the sun'- showed rest of world that G wanted expansion which would mean taking from others

Haldane Mission

1912

Haldane said that after everything (translation of the bill) G= to slow down military action- b = neutral in any war against G but they disagreed

The New Strategy

1913

Blank Cheque

1914

-Telegram sent by Wilhelm II & Bethmann telling Austria that G would support whatever action was necessary to deal with Stalin

September Programme

September 1914 - November 1914

Bethmann-Hollweg's separate peace treaty peace with F based on a quick G victory in the west.
-plan they had drawn up about dealing with F after the war