Americas After the 1500s

Main

15th century

Atlantic Slave Trade

1450 - 1750

Added a substantial African presence to the mix of Europeans and Native Americans. This injected into these societies issues of race that still endure today.

Columbus' Discovery of America

1492

He never actually made it to the Americas, but his voyage did spark Spanish interest in these new lands as a possible source of resources that could be exploited.

The Columbian Exchange

1492

Enormous network of trade, communication, migration, the spread of diseases, and transfer of plants and animals all facilitated by the European colonies in the Americas.

Emergence of Complex Societies: Chinookan, Tulalip, and Skagit

1499

They were different because they had considerable economic specialization and ranked societies with slaves

16th Century

The Great Dying

1500

The demographic collapse of Native Americans due to the long isolation from Afro-Eurasian world, and the lack of most domesticated animals and the absence of acquired immunities to Old World diseases.

The Spanish Conquest of the Incas and the Aztecs

1521

Gave Spain access to the most wealthy, urbanized, and densely populated region of the Western Hemisphere. New social order and the emergence of Mestizos (the mixed race population)

Spanish Catholic Missionaries Convert the Latin Americans to Christianity

1535 - 1700

Different than earlier conquests because the Europeans claimed an exclusive religious truth and sought the utter complete control of local gods and deities.

18th Century

North American Revolution

1775 - 1787

Started by British aggression and gained political independence. It was a conservative movement because it was an effort to preserve the existing liberties in the colonies rather than creating new ones. A democratic society emerged from this revolution.

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The only successful slave revolt in history triggered by rumors that the French King had already abolished slavery. It inspired other slave rebellions, injected a deep rooted caution and social conservatism in Latin America that later resulted in independence.

19th century

Latin American Revolution

1810 - 1825

They were offended by the efforts of the Spanish monarchy to greater control the colonies and subject them to taxes. Lasted twice as long as the American revolution because of class, region, and race divisions. They ended up worse than they started.

American Industrialization Begins

1820 - 1865

It started in the textile factories of New England. The country's huge size, ready availability of natural resources, its growing domestic market, and its relative political stability combined to make the US the world's leading industrial power.

Emancipation of Slaves

1834

Based off of Enlightenment Ideas. Economic lives of former slaves didn't really improve and sharecropping emerged. Newly freed people did not achieve political equality although the US had a short period of political equality for slaves but it didn't last.

Post Independence Decline of Latin America

1840 - 1859

Decimated populations, weakening economy, shrinking trade investments, a divide between the liberals and conservatives, slavery abolished, and racism lessened.

Women's Rights Conference in Seneca Falls, New York

1848

As a result of Enlightenment thinking, this was the first organized expression of the emerging feminist movements.

Growing Nationalism

1850 - 1859

An aid to the people's aspirations towards a wider involvement in political life. People of various cultures could assimilate into the dominant culture and "become American".

Feminist Movements Focused on Suffrage

1870 - 1879

Many ordinary middle and working class women joined the feminist movement

Political Consolidation of Latin America

1880 - 1899

Latin America and South America became closely integrated with the world economy and attracted Europeans.

A Growing Gap Between Classes Emerged

1890 - 1899

Socialism didn't appeal to Americans

20th Century

Bloody Conflict in Mexico That Created A Constitution

1910 - 1917

Due to the unchanging social order many peasant middle class reformers and peasants overthrew the dictator (Portifiro Diaz) and Mexico had a new constitution.

WWI Loosened the Hold of Traditions

1914

Enormous casualties promoted social mobility, women loosened their morals, and popular culture emerged.

The Great Depression

1929

Due to the stock market crash, the banks closed, people lost their life savings, world trade decreased by 62%, and they couldn't sell their products which resulted in unemployment.

Many Technological Innovations Contributing to Globalization

1940 - 1959

Containerized shipping, huge oil tankers, air express services, and the Internet.

Pearl Harbor

1941

Was result of Japan's goal to end American hostility to Japanese empire building because America viewed them as a threat to US economic interests in Asia. However this resulted in the US bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki in WWII.

Conference in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire

1944

Determined to avoid any return to Depression era conditions, at this conference they forged a set of agreements and institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.

The Cold War

1947 - 1991

A nuclear standoff between the USSR and the US but they never used this nuclear weaponry.

The Marshall Plan

1948

Indication of US's intention to exercise global leadership following WWII giving Europe recovery money that worked really well.

NATO

1949

It committed the US and its nuclear arsenal to the defense of Europe against the Soviet Union.

The US's Global Role Post WWII

1949

Spearheaded the western effort to contain the spread of communism. Everyone looked up to America politically and economically.

Neo-liberalism

1970 - 2000

The US abandoned many earlier political controls on economic activity and viewed the world as a single market- capitalism

Globalization

1970 - 2000

World Trade skyrocketed, money achieved amazing global mobility, transnational corporations, high immigration rates, and Europe and America are way better off than the rest of the world.