The dates are given to me by my teacher, the knowledge is out of a combination of my notes, book and "The Princeton Review" book for Ap World History.
Created during and after the life/death of the prophet Muhammed, the Qur'an is the Islamic holy book.
Started from when Jesus was crucified, at the same time as both the Roman and Han Empires.
The Moors were people of Arab and Berber origins that invaded Spain in 711 C.E. By that time the Visigothic kingdom had reached its decline with internal disputes, disease and famine plaguing the entire country. This provided a good opportunity to the Moors to make their way into Spain.
Spain becomes Islamic until an ethnic cleansing occurs in the 1300 C.E-1400 C.E (all non-catholics were forced to leave the country or convert)
Polytheistic faith (multiple deities)
Practiced widely in India
STRICT caste system
Belief in a past and future life (depending on your caste and behavior)
"Cycle of death and rebirth"
No central sacred text as in other religion, but uses the "Vedas" and the "Upanishads"
Was later the inspiration for Buddhism
Trade along the Silk Road thrived during this time
Confucius-based society (civil service exam, highly educated government officials, highly skilled government bureacracy)
Paper, highly accurate sundials, callendars and navigational improvement during this time
Collapsed due to polictical undrmining by Wang Mang and the "Mandate of Heaven", poor economic state (high taxes for landowners=resentful population). Famines and floods along the Yellow River eventually lead to the collapse.
**even though the Han Dynasty tried to build itself back up around 23 C.E, it fell completely aroud 220 C.E
Kush developed around the same time as Ancient Egypt and actually conquored Egypt around 750 B.C.E. But, The Kingdom of Kush was forced to retreate South towards its capital of Meroe where it became a center for ironworks and trade.
**situated in the overlap of what is now North Africa and the Middle East
After the influnce and conversion of many African nations to Islam (see Mali, Ghana and Songhai), the Gold and Salt trade was started by Muslim traders than went across the Sahara, creating a trade route. this trade route continued to spread culture an Islam. It was able to be started due to the excessive amounts of salt and god in (mainly) Northern and Western Africa thgat was desired by muslim merchants. Camels and caravans were used to make the trek across the Sahara.
Increased African trade with the Mediterrainian
Ghana was one of the first Islamic nations in West Africa
Islam brought in during the Gold and Salt trade
The introduction of Islam caused a Holy War in Ghana, an Islamic group intended to either convert or kill everyone. Ghana did win, but the empire fell into decline.
A region in WEst Africa that interested Islamic traders due to its large quantity of gold (see the "Gold and Salt trade")
Mali was an Islamic empire after Ghana (see "Ghana")
One of the greatest Mali rulers, Mansa Musa, built a capital at Timbuktu and expanded the kindom. In 1324, Musa made the pilgrimige to Mecca (as was Islamic custom to do so)
Songhai leader Sonni Ali conquored the West African region and created the Songhai empire.
During its reign, Timbuktu became a major cultural center, complete withg a university that drew in scholars from aroudn the Islamic World
Starting in the latter part of the Neolithic Age, the Bronze age was stated when early civilizations figured out how to combine copper with tin to make bronze. This bronze made stronger weapons until iron was created.
Indo-Europeans came into the Greek peninsula
They were a collection of city states but were not unified due to geography
They were a patriarchal society
Limited citizenship and slavery made up 1/3 of the total population
Athens and Sparta were the two most well-known city states
Athens had a predominant navy whereas Sparta got its navy from Persia
Sparta ruled over Athens for a short time
Polytheism allowed the city-states to band together
Greek art and culture merged with Middle Eastern culture and art during the Hellenistic period
Greeks made advancements in architecture, philosophy (Plato, Socrates and Aristotle), history and medicine (Hippocrates)
All male citizens attended assemblies but the votes of the wealthy were worth more than the votes of the poor
Two consuls, secondary to the emperor (two people, one was in charge of war, the other in charge of government) and only served one year
Normally, consuls started in the senate but were them elected consul
Plebians-poor people, more populous
In families, women were considered "children" in the eyes of law
Oldest male in the family exercised complete authority
Romans were constantly under seige and were rapidly expanding and allowed conquored people to become citizens of Rome
Started to move away from self-sufficiency and relied on Egypt for food and other traded goods
Rome imported grain, spices and silk (silk road) but exported glass, metalwork and pottery (no food)
Conflict of orders-the twelve tables (the law), the tribunes (Plebians elected to go to the senate. They were allowed to veto only, not vote and could be bribed, so unreliable)
**Senate was hereditary
War of Carthage(called the Punic Wars)-between 264 B.C-202 B.C.E over the control of Western Mediterranean
Punic wars were actually three wars against Carthage
Civil war fought between Julius Caesar and Octavius over Pompeii- Julius Caesar won
Spread Hellenistic culture
His empire consisted of Greece, Persia and the Indian sub-continent
He spread Greek ideas that lead to the Hellenistic period
His empire fell because he had no heir (no children)
Very young emperor
Julius Caesar ruled for about 15 years until assasinated (he was a terrible and unproductive leader)
The army chose Caesar's grand-nephew Augustus Caesar
After Augustus Caesar was chosen, the "Pax Romana" occurred- or "Roman peace" for 200 years
During the 200 years of Pax Romana, the empire grew and connected ("Romanization" or the spread of the Latin language)
Building projects happened during the Pax Romana (aqueducts)
Trade with China (silk road) imported and exported same as roman republic
Constantine moved the capital to Constantinople to try and save the Empire, rich Romans followed him to the new Byzantine Empire, Roman empire went into decline
In 313 C.E Constantine embraces Christianity
Empire declined due to poor harvest, ineffective rulers, shift of capital, nomadic invasions and the emergence and dominance of the Christian faith.
Started by Constantine when he moved the capital to Constantinople
First major christian empire
Constantinople was responsible for the Balkan peninsula, the northern middle east, the Mediterranean coast, and north Africa