AP World History
The most famous emperor of the Byzantine Empire, who did not succeed in conquering Western Rome. Achievements: Justinian's Code (Body of Civil Law) based on 12 Tables of Rome, Greek becomes official language of the Empire
In Mecca, Muhammad is born. Later marries Khadija. Traveled in a caravan with his wife. When he was 40, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and revealed that he was selected as a messenger for Allah's divine inspiration.
Following the fall of the Han, China was divided into small regional kingdoms until the Sui reunited it. Achievements: Grand Canal, Expanding the Empire, reinstated the Confucian civil service system to establish legitimacy
achievements: finished Grand Canal, garrisons as far as Kashgar, equal field system, Changan becomes a major cosmopolitan city of 2 million people, Neo-Confucianism
Muhammad's message is not met with enthusiasm in his hometown of Mecca, and after there are threats on his life, he flees to Medina.
Muhammad and his followers return to Mecca, and destroy the idols in the city.
After the first four caliphs, the Umayyad clan takes control and changes the caliphate into a hereditary monarchy, with its capital at Damascus. Achievements: bureaucratic structure in which local administrators govern conquered areas, cultures tolerated if they obey Islamic rules/paid taxes/didn't revolt, arabic becomes language of administration/business/law/trade
Empress Wu, originally a concubine of the emperor, is named "Heavenly Empress". Was an advocate of Buddhism. Achievements: support for Buddhism and art, school for Buddhist and Confucian scholarship
The Fujiwara Clan dominates Japan, modelling their capital, Nara, on Changan in China, sending emissaries to China, and attempting to introduce a Chinese-style bureaucracy. The bureaucracy failed to take off, and was replaced with a strict hereditary hierarchy instead.
Achievements: move capital to Baghdad (most important political/commercial centers of world), trade flourishes, House of Wisdom translates Greek/Persian texts into Arabic Islam spreads through Trans-Saharan trade to West Africa, Dar-al-Islam becomes one of most dominant influences in Eastern Hemisphere
Japan cuts off all contact with China, and concentrates, instead, on focusing on expressing fundamental 'Japanese" cultural values'.
House of Wisdom is built in Baghdad and facilitates the translation of Greek and Persian texts into Arabic.
Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, Empress Wu's attempts to popularize Buddhism face backlash, as campaigns are set out to destroy monasteries and weaken the influence of Buddhism, bringing about the birth of Neo-Confucianism.
The Song dynasty reestablishes centralized control over China. Achievements: tribute system with nomadic neighbours to prevent invasion, checked power of landed aristocracy, economic revolution, capital at Kaifeng becomes a manufacturing system, cannons, movable type, water-powered mills, looms, porcelain, paper currency, flying cash, magnetic compasses,
The Roman Pope and the Byzantine Patriarch mutually excommunicate each other after years of tension and disagreement between the two churches following the fall of Rome.
The Muslim Seljuk Turks invade Abbasid territory and captured Baghdad, rendering the caliph as a mere spiritual authority, and placing the Seljuk Sultan as the secular monarch.
A Norman lord named William (from northern France) invades England with his army, defeating the Saxons and establishing a Norman power in modern-day Britain.