600 to 1450 C.E

AP World History


Early Middle Ages

500 C.E - 1000 C.E

Reign of Justinian in the Byzantine Empire

527 C.E - 565 C.E

The most famous emperor of the Byzantine Empire, who did not succeed in conquering Western Rome. Achievements: Justinian's Code (Body of Civil Law) based on 12 Tables of Rome, Greek becomes official language of the Empire

Birth of Muhammad

570 C.E

In Mecca, Muhammad is born. Later marries Khadija. Traveled in a caravan with his wife. When he was 40, the angel Gabriel appeared to him and revealed that he was selected as a messenger for Allah's divine inspiration.

Sui Dynasty

581 C.E - 618 C.E

Following the fall of the Han, China was divided into small regional kingdoms until the Sui reunited it. Achievements: Grand Canal, Expanding the Empire, reinstated the Confucian civil service system to establish legitimacy

Tang Dynasty

618 C.E - 907 C.E

achievements: finished Grand Canal, garrisons as far as Kashgar, equal field system, Changan becomes a major cosmopolitan city of 2 million people, Neo-Confucianism

Hijra (Muhammad's flight to Medina)

622 C.E

Muhammad's message is not met with enthusiasm in his hometown of Mecca, and after there are threats on his life, he flees to Medina.

Muhammad and his followers return to Mecca

630 C.E

Muhammad and his followers return to Mecca, and destroy the idols in the city.

Umayyad clan takes control

661 C.E

After the first four caliphs, the Umayyad clan takes control and changes the caliphate into a hereditary monarchy, with its capital at Damascus. Achievements: bureaucratic structure in which local administrators govern conquered areas, cultures tolerated if they obey Islamic rules/paid taxes/didn't revolt, arabic becomes language of administration/business/law/trade

"Heavenly" Empress Wu

690 C.E

Empress Wu, originally a concubine of the emperor, is named "Heavenly Empress". Was an advocate of Buddhism. Achievements: support for Buddhism and art, school for Buddhist and Confucian scholarship

Fujiwara Clan in Japan

710 C.E - 785 C.E

The Fujiwara Clan dominates Japan, modelling their capital, Nara, on Changan in China, sending emissaries to China, and attempting to introduce a Chinese-style bureaucracy. The bureaucracy failed to take off, and was replaced with a strict hereditary hierarchy instead.

Abbasid clan overthrows Umayyad dynasty

750 C.E

Achievements: move capital to Baghdad (most important political/commercial centers of world), trade flourishes, House of Wisdom translates Greek/Persian texts into Arabic Islam spreads through Trans-Saharan trade to West Africa, Dar-al-Islam becomes one of most dominant influences in Eastern Hemisphere

Heian Period in Japan

794 C.E - 1185 C.E

Japan cuts off all contact with China, and concentrates, instead, on focusing on expressing fundamental 'Japanese" cultural values'.

House of Wisdom is built

830 C.E

House of Wisdom is built in Baghdad and facilitates the translation of Greek and Persian texts into Arabic.

Anti-Buddhist Campaign in China

841 C.E - 845 C.E

Towards the end of the Tang dynasty, Empress Wu's attempts to popularize Buddhism face backlash, as campaigns are set out to destroy monasteries and weaken the influence of Buddhism, bringing about the birth of Neo-Confucianism.

Song Dynasty

960 C.E - 1279 C.E

The Song dynasty reestablishes centralized control over China. Achievements: tribute system with nomadic neighbours to prevent invasion, checked power of landed aristocracy, economic revolution, capital at Kaifeng becomes a manufacturing system, cannons, movable type, water-powered mills, looms, porcelain, paper currency, flying cash, magnetic compasses,

Great Schism between Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox


The Roman Pope and the Byzantine Patriarch mutually excommunicate each other after years of tension and disagreement between the two churches following the fall of Rome.

Seljuk Turks invade Baghdad


The Muslim Seljuk Turks invade Abbasid territory and captured Baghdad, rendering the caliph as a mere spiritual authority, and placing the Seljuk Sultan as the secular monarch.

William the Conqueror invades England


A Norman lord named William (from northern France) invades England with his army, defeating the Saxons and establishing a Norman power in modern-day Britain.

Mamluks control Egypt

1250 C.E - 1517 C.E