Forty hours of continuous shelling before the fort fell to the South.
This was the first great battle of the Civil War. The battle was fought at Manassas Junction near Bull Run Creek, only 30 miles south of Washington, D. C.
For the first time in history two ironclad ships battled. The battle lasted for hours. Neither side won the battle. The Confederate ironclad was an old wooden ship called the Merrimac which had been rebuilt with iron all around the boat. The Merrimac had sunk several Union ships in the past months. The North decided to build an ironclad ship to fight it. The Northern ship was called the Monitor.
President issued a proclamation freeing all the slaves in the South. Lincoln's document called the Emancipation Proclamation because in emancipated the slaves.
Union troops under Rosecrans forced the Confederates to retreat after the Battle of Stones River.
Robert E. Lee invaded Pennsylvania in June 1863. He was hoping to threaten Washington and Philadelphia, to breed Northern morale, and to gain recognition and independence for the Southern Confederacy. At Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, Lee's Army of Northern Virginia met the Army of the Potomac. It was under the command of General George G, Meade. This famous battle lasted three days.
This was the first in a series of battles. The first Union attack was made in an area about 50 miles from Richmond. The Union gained little and lost much in casualties.
Lincoln was reelected President for a second term.
Lee became general in chief of the South.
General Lee surrendered to General Grant at Appomottox Courthouse, Virginia.