APUSH FINAL REVIEW

all apush, all america, all everything

Dates

Discovery of America

1492

-Columbus discovers America
-sent from Spain
-was supposed to find a route to Indies (for trade)

Virginia Colony founded at Jamestown

1607

-founded on the charter of the Virginia co., gave the settlers the same rights as Englishmen
-early years were a nightmare: disease, malnutrition, starvation, wasted time looking for gold
-saved by John Smith, made them work
-John Rolfe introduced tobacco, colonists now desire land not food, put colony on firm economic foundation
-but, tobacco ruined the soil and became a cash crop, subject to price change, and promoted plantation system

House of Burgesses established

1619

-VA co let colonizers assemble, known as this
-momentous precedent for representative self-government
-first of many mini parliaments in America

Pilgrims sail on the Mayflower to Plymouth Bay

1620

-group of separatists, fleeing royal wrath, fled to Holland but not good enough
-now, they set up agreement with VA co. and secured rights to settle
-missed its destination, arrived in New England
-less than half were separatists
-drew up and signed Mayflower Compact before disembarking, set invaluable precedent for const, simple agreement to form a crude gov and to submit to will of majority, step towards self-gov

Proclamation of 1763

1763

-decree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac's uprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians
-contributed to rising resentment of British rule in American colonies

Battles of Lexington and Concord

1775

-first battles of the Revolutionary War
-fought outside of Boston
-colonial militia successfully defended their stores of munitions, forcing British to retreat to Boston

Declaration of Independence

1776

-formal pronouncement of independence drafted by Thomas Jefferson and approved by Congress
-allowed Americans to appeal for foreign financial aid
-served as an inspiration for later revolutionary movements worldwide
-justified their separation, and listed the many tyrannical acts of King George III

French and Americans force Cornwallis to surrender at Yorktown

1781

-G.Washington cornered Cornwallis and made him surrender
-George III doesn't want to give up yet, fighting continues for a year
-peace finally reached in 1783 in Treaty of Paris, Americans were not to restore confiscated Loyalist property, no obstruct debts to Britain, BUT, neither carried out

Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia

1787

-control of commerce lead to it,
-convention "for the sole and express purpose of revising" the Articles of Confederation

Constitution put into effect

1789

-put into effect
-G. Washington unanimously drafted as president by Electoral College

Louisiana Purchase/Marbury v. Madison

1803

-acquisition of Louisiana territory from France
-more than doubled the size of US
-opened vast tracts for settlement

-established judicial review

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

-fought between Britain and US largely over issue of trade and impressment
-war ended in a relative draw, but demonstrated willingness of America to defend its interests militarily, earning it respect from European powers

Missouri Compromise

1820

-allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36˚30'

Mexican War

1846 - 1848

-Polk wanted war because he wanted California and Mexico wouldn't sell it
-supposably, Mexicans attacked Americans near border, but supposably on American side
-ended with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, terms confirmed American title to Texas, plus westward lands up to OR and CA, US pays $15 million for the land, and assumes claims of its citizens against Mexico ($3,250,000)

California gold rush

1849

-inflow of thousands of miners to N.CA after news reports of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in Jan 1848 had spread around the world by end of that year
-onslaught of migrants prompted Californian's to organize a government and apply for statehood in 1849

Compromise of 1850

1850

-admitted CA as a free state
-opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty
-ended the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in D.C. and introduced a stricter fugitive slave law
-widely opposed in both North and South, did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery

South Carolina secedes from Union

1860

-provoked by Lincoln becoming president
-six other states followed promptly, eventually 11 states did
-formed Confederate States of America, pres. Jefferson Davis
-Crittenden amendments fail, Lincoln rejects them on principal of not allowing extension f slavery

Civil War

1861 - 1865

-Union v. Confederates

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

-forbade trusts or combinations in business
-landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional attempts to regulate big business for the public good
-mostly used to restrain trade unions as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases
-in 1914 revised to be more effective against monopolistic corporations

Sherman Silver Purchase Act

1890

-increased amount of silver gov was required to purchase
-repealed in 1893

Spanish-American War

April 1898 - August 1898

-Maine had blown up in Havana harbor in Feb 1998, Americans accused Spanish, only later discovered it was internal issue
-McKinley sent war message to Congress in April, urging to free oppressed Cubans

America in World War I

April 1917 - June 1919

-provoked by Zimmerman note, German U-boats sinking unarmed American merchant ships (got rid of Sussex pledge from 1916, couldn't afford to make distinction between combatants and noncombatants)
-Wilson was reluctant, wanted to hold onto peace but couldn't any longer, wanted peace without victory
-ended by Treaty of Versailles, built on Wilson's Fourteen Points, but Wilson had to make too many compromises for them to be effective

Stock Market Crash

1929

-banks went under: poorly regulated, families lose savings, 25% of banks close
-overproduction: production had been going up, consumer demand, mechanization in factories, increase in factories, decade long problem with agriculture, increase in efficient workers, need more mouths to feed
-farming declines: no longer backbone of US economy, farmers heavily mortgaged, farm incomes down 50%, property values down, mother nature attacks
-unequal distribution of wealth: Americans on avg more prosperous than ever, wealth gap emerges, est. 60% below poverty line, tough for workers, unemployment increasing, jobs becoming automated

FDR launches New Deal

1933

-Bank Holiday
-Emergency Banking Relief Act
-Beer and Wine Revenue Act
-Hundred Days Congress enacts AAA, TVA, HOLC, NRA, PWA
-Federal Securities Act
-Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act
-21st amendment: prohibition repealed

America in WWII

1941 - 1945

-Japan attacks Pearl Harbor, forces America to join WWII despite all of their attempts to stay "neutral"
-dilemma of entering war: wanted to stay out, but once France fell, didn't want to see Britain fall. wanted to stop Japan for threat of trade and security and Intl. peace
-America needed time, big issue of retooling for all-out war while war still going on in Europe
-put an end to Great Depression once and for all

Truman Doctrine

1947

-pres. Truman's universal pledge of support for any people fighting any communist or communist inspired threat
-Truman presented it to Congress in 1947 in support of his request for $400 million to defend Greece and Turkey against Soviet-backed insurgencies

Brown v. Board of Education

1954

-landmark Supreme Court decision that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson
-abolished racial segregation in public schools
-Court reasoned that "separate" was inherently "unequal," rejecting the foundation of the Jim Crow system of racial segregation in the South
-first major step toward the legal end of racial discrimination and a major accomplishment for the Civil Rights movement

USSR launches Sputnik

1957

-Soviet satellite first launched into Earth orbit on Oct. 4, 1957
-marked the first time human beings had put a man-made object into orbit and pushed the USSR noticeably ahead of the US in the Space Race
-month later, Sputnik II, prompting US to redouble its space exploration efforts and raising American fears of Soviet superiority

Civil Rights Act

1964

-banned racial discrimination in public facilities and strengthened the federal government's power to fight segregation in schools
-prohibited employers from discriminating based on race in their hiring practices
-empowered the EEOC to regulate fair employment

Watergate hearings and investigations

1973 - August 1974

-series of scandals that resulted in Pres. Nixon's resignation in August 1974 amid calls for his impeachment
-sprang from a failed burglary attempt at Democratic HQ in Washington's Watergate Hotel during 1972 election
-Nixon didn't give evidence because he claimed "executive privilege"
-impeachment charges on: obstruction of justice, abuse of the powers of the presidential office, and contempt of Congress

South Vietnam falls to communists

1975

-N.Vietnam went into full throttle in drive southward
-Ford urged Congress to send more weapons, but denied
-last of American troops evacuated on April 29, 1975
-without the massive American aid, S. Vietnam quickly collapses

Eras

Colonial

1607 - 1775

Age of Jackson

1828 - 1836

Reforms

1830 - 1850

Reconstruction

1865 - 1877

Gilded Age

1870 - 1880

Age of Industrialism

1870 - 1900

Populism

1880 - 1890

Progressivism

1900 - 1914

New Deal

1933 - 1939

New Frontier & Great Society

1960 - 1968

Laws

Stamp Act

1765 - 1766

-widely unpopular tax on an array of paper goods, repealed in 1766 after mass protests erupted across the colonies
-colonists developed the principle of "no taxation without representation" which questioned Parliament's authority over the colonies and laid the foundation for future revolutionary claims
-lead to Stamp Act Congress (1765), assembly of delegates from 9 colonies who met in NYC to draft petition for the repeal of the Stamp Act, helped ease sectional suspicions and promoted inter-colonial unity

Land Ordinance of 1785

1785

-provided for the sale of land in the Old Northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt
-section of each township set aside to be sold for the benefit of public schools, gifted education in Northwest

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

1787

-created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories
-included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories (but, exempted slavery already present)

US Bank Charter

1791

-created by Congress (necessary and proper)
-chartered for 20 years
-located in Philadelphia
-capital of $10 million, 1/5 of it owned by the fed. gov
-stock thrown open to public sale
-Hamilton advocated it, he held a loose construction view
-opposed by Jefferson, strict construction view

Missouri Compromise

1820

-allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North and South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts and prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase north of the 36˚30’

Compromise of 1850

1850

-admitted CA as a free state
-opened New Mexico and Utah to popular sovereignty
-ended the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in D.C. and introduced a stricter fugitive slave law
-widely opposed in both North and South, did little to settle the escalating dispute over slavery

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854

-proposed that the issue of slavery be decided by popular sovereignty in the Kansas and Nebraska territories
-revoked the Missouri Compromise (1820)
-introduced by Stephen Douglass in an effort to bring Nebraska into the Union and pave the way for a northern transcontinental railroad

Homestead (Morrill) Act of 1862

1862

-gave settlers 160 acres of land for about $30 if they lived on it for 5 years and improved it by, for instance, building a house on it
-helped make land accessible to hundreds of thousands of westward-moving settlers
-many people also found disappointment when their land was infertile or they saw speculators grabbing up the best land
-also, companies could cheat the system and use it to get a bunch of land, and built tiny houses on it (12inches)

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

-broke up Indian reservations and distributed land to individual households
-leftover land was sold for money to fund the US gov's efforts to "civilize" Native Americans
-of 130 million acres held in NA reservations before the Act, 90 million were sold to non-Native buyers

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

-law that forbade trusts or combinations in business
-landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional attempts to regulate big business for the public good
-at first used to restrain trade unions as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases
-in 1914 it was revised so it could more effectively be used against monopolistic corporations

Federal Reserve Act

1913

-established 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks and a Federal Reserve Board, appointed by the president, to regulate banking and create stability on a national scale in the volatile banking sector
-carried the nation through the financial crises of WWI

Clayton Act

1914

-law extending the anti-trust protections of the Sherman Act and exempting labor unions and agricultural organizations from antimonopoly constraints
-conferred long-overdue benefits on labor

Norris-LaGuardia Anti-Injunction Act

1932

-banned "yellow-dog" or anti-union work contracts and forbade federal courts from issuing injunctions to squash strikes and boycotts
-early piece of the labor-friendly federal legislation

National Recovery Administration

1933

-early New Deal program designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed through centralized planning mechanisms that monitored workers' earnings and working hours to distribute work
-established codes for "fair competition" to ensure that similar procedures were followed by all firms in any particular industrial sector

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

1933

-gov program created by Congress to hire young unemployed men to improve the rural, out-of-doors environment with such work as planting trees, fighting fires, draining swamps, and maintaining National Parks
-proved to be an important foundation for the post-WWII environmental movement

Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

1933

-one of the most revolutionary of the New Deal public works projects
-brought cheap electric power, full employment, low-cost housing, and environmental improvements to Americans in the Tennessee Valley
-critics claimed it was socialistic

Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)

1933

-a New Deal program designed to raise agricultural prices by paying farmers not to farm
-based on the assumption that higher prices would increase farmers' purchasing power and thereby help alleviate the Great Depression

Work Progress Administration

1935

-created partly to quiet unrest (of Americans over economy, socialism, etc) that might lead to a political explosion
-objective was employment on useful projects
-launched under Hopkins
-public buildings, bridges, hard-surfaced roads, controlling crickets, build a monkey pen
-Federal Arts Project (WPA program), hired artists to create posters and murals

Social Security Act

1935

-flagship accomplishment of New Deal
-provided for unemployment and old-age insurance financed by a payroll tax on employers and employees
-has long remained a pillar of the "New Deal Order"

Wagner Act

1935

-aka National Labor Relations Act (NLRA)
-protected the right of labor to organize in unions and bargain collectively with employers
-established the National Labor Relations Board to monitor unfair labor practices on the part of the employer
-passage marked the culmination of decades of labor protest

Fair Labor Standards Act

1938

-important New Deal labor legislation that regulated minimum wages and maximum hours for workers involved in interstate commerce
-also outlawed labor by children under 16
-the exclusion of agricultural, service, and domestic workers meant that many blacks, Mexican-Americans, and women (who were concentrated in these sectors) did not benefit from the act's protection

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

-banned racial discrimination in public facilities and strengthened the federal government’s power to fight segregation in schools
-prohibited employers from discriminating based on race in their hiring practices
-empowered the EEOC to regulate fair employment

Medicare

1965

-Medicare for the elderly, Medicaid for the poor
-created "entitlements," conferred rights on certain categories of Americans virtually in perpetuity
-part of a spreading "rights revolution" that materially improved the lives of millions of Americans, but also eventually undermined the federal government's financial health

Voting Rights Act of 1965

1965

-pushed through Congress by president Johnson
-prohibited ballot-denying tactics, such as literacy tests and intimidation
-successor to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and sought to make racial disenfranchisement explicitly illegal

Tariffs

Hamilton tariff

1789

-wanted to generate revenue
-speedily passed in Congress
-also designed to erect a low protective wall around infant industries
-Hamilton also had an excise tax in 1791, placed tax on domestic items like whiskey

Tariff of Abominations

1828

-noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports
-southerners vehemently opposed it, arguing that it hurt Souther farmers who did not enjoy the protections of the tariff, but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures

McKinley Tariff

1890

-pushed through Congress by pres. McKinley
-raised duties on Hawaiian sugar and set off renewed efforts to secure the annexation of Hawaii to the US

Underwood Tariff

1913

-provided substantial reduction of rates and enacted an unprecedented, graduated federal income tax
-by 1917, revenue from the income tax surpassed the receipts from the tariff, a gap that has since been vastly widened.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff

1930

-the highest protective tariff in the peacetime history of the US, passed as a result of good old-fashioned horse trading
-to the outside world, it smacked of ugly economic warfare

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act

1934

-reversed traditional high-protective tariff policies by allowing the president to negotiate lower tariffs with trade partners, without Senate approval
-chief architect was Sec. of State Hull, who believed that the tariff barriers chocked off foreign trade

Foreign Policies

Washington's Farewell Address

1796

-warned against permanent alliances with other nations
-did not oppose all alliances, but believed that the young, fledging nation should forge alliances only on a temporary basis, in extraordinary circumstances
-promoted isolationism

Monroe Doctrine

1823

-statement delivered by pres. Monroe
-warned European powers to refrain from seeking any new territories in the Americas
-US largely lacked the power to back up the pronouncement, which was actually enforced by the British, who sought unfettered access to Latin American markets

Manifest Destiny

1840 - 1859

-belief that the US was destined by God to spread its "empire of liberty" across North America
-served as justification for mid-19th century expansionism

Open Door

1899

-set of diplomatic letters in which Sec of State Hay urged the great powers to respect Chinese rights and free and open competition within their spheres of influence
-established the "Open Door policy," which sought to ensure access to the Chinese market for the US, despite the fact that the US did not have a formal sphere of influence in China

Roosevelt Corollary

1904

-brazen policy of "preventive intervention" advocated by TR
-added to Monroe doctrine, stipulated that the US would retain a right to intervene in the domestic affairs of Latin American nations in order to restore military and financial order

Gentlemen's Agreement

1907

-TR made Californians repeal offensive school order that segregated asian students into a special school
-Tokyo agreed to stop the flow of laborers to the American mainland by withholding passports

14 points

1918

-Wilson's proposal to ensure peace after WWI
-called for an end to secret treaties, widespread arms reduction, national self-determination, and a new league of nations

Neutrality Acts

1935 - 1937

-short-sighted acts passed in order to prevent American participation in a European War
-among other restrictions, they prevented Americans from selling munitions to foreign belligerents

Neutrality Act of 1939

1939

-European democracies could buy American munitions only if they could pay in cash and transport them in their own ships
-"cash and carry"
-represented an effort to avoid war debts and protect American arms-carriers from torpedo attacks

Lend-Lease Bill

1941

-based on motto "send guns, not sons"
-abandoned former pretenses of neutrality by allowing Americans to sell unlimited supplies of arms to any nation defending itself against the Axis Powers
-praised as a device for keeping the nation out of WWII

Atlantic Charter

1941

-meeting on a warship off the coast of Newfoundland in August 1941, FDR, Churchill signed this covenant outlining the future path toward disarmament, peace, and a permanent system of general security
-spirit would animate the founding of the UN and raise awareness of human rights of individuals after WWII

Containment

1947 - 1969

-America's strategy against the USSR based on ideas of George Kennan
-declared that the USSR and communism were inherently expansionist and had to be stopped from spreading through both military and political pressure
-guided American fopo throughout most of the Cold War

Truman Doctrine

1947

-pres. Truman's universal pledge of support for any people fighting any communist or communist inspired threat
-presented the doctrine to Congress in 1947 in support of his request for $400 million to defend Greece and Turkey against Soviet-backed insurgencies

Marshall Plan

1948

-massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe
-intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power
-huge success, pumped american dollars into Europe, stimulated them and lead them to quick prosperity

detente

1969 - 1980

-"reduced tension"
-period of the Cold War thawing when the US and USSR negotiated reduced armament treaties under Nixon, Ford, and Carter
-as a policy-description, it marked a departure from the policies of proportional response, mutually assured destruction, and containment that had defined the earlier years of the Cold War

Vietnamization

1969

-military strategy launched by Nixon
-reduced number of American combat troops in Vietnam and left more of the fighting to the South Vietnamese, who were supplied with American armor, tanks, and weaponry

Misc. terms

antebellum

1861

existing before a war, especially: existing before the American Civil War

cultural plurilism

1916

when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.
-place value on integration rather than assimilation
-roots in transcedentalism
e.g. US

nativism

1924

-sentiment favoring Americans, opposing immigrants/foreigners

affirmative action

1961

-signed by JFK
-tells employers to not discriminate against employees or applicants bc of race, etc.
-also, to take affirmative action into account to ensure applicants are employed