Architecture 170B, Final Study sheet, Spring 2013


Chicago, Arts & Crafts, and Early Frank Lloyd Wright

Sagrada Familia

1883 - 1929

unfinished Church, Barcelona, (Antonio Gaudi)
*Gaudí devoted his last years to the project, and at the time of his death at age 73 in 1926, less than a quarter of the project was complete
*The basílica has a long history of dividing the citizens of Barcelona
(Art Nouveau)

Theo Van Doesburg

1883 - 1931

"Spacial diagrams" (1920, 1924)
Cubism and De Stiji

Home Insurance Building

1884 - 1885

By William LeBaron Jenney, credited for devising the first metal-frame highrise: Chicago 1884-85 (demolished 1931)

Marshall Field Wholesale Store

1885 - 1887

By Henry Hobson Richardson

(Chicago, Arts& Crafts, and Early Frank Lloyd Wright)'s_Wholesale_Store

Antonio Sant'Elia

1888 - 1916

Futurism: Power Plant
His vision was for a highly industrialised and mechanized city of the future, which he saw not as a mass of individual buildings but a vast, multi-level, interconnected and integrated urban conurbation designed around the "life" of the city. His extremely influential designs featured vast monolithic skyscraper buildings with terraces, bridges and aerial walkways that embodied the sheer excitement of modern architecture and technology.
(New Content & New Forms)'Elia

Wainright Building

1890 - 1891

St. Louis
By Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler

*The building, listed as a landmark both locally and nationally, is described as "a highly influential prototype of the modern office building"
*Architect Frank Lloyd Wright called the Wainwright Building "the very first human expression of a tall steel
*mong the first skyscrapers in the world

(Chicago, arts and crafts, early Frank Lloyd Wright)

The Monadnock Building

1890 - 1891

The work of Burnham and Root (was the name of the company that John Wellborn Root and Daniel Hudson Burnham established as one of Chicago's most famous architectural companies of the nineteenth century.)

(Chicago, arts and crafts, and early Frank Lloyd Wright)

The World's Columbian Exposition


*Developed by a joint stock company, planning by Burnham, designed by Frederick Law Olmstead
*held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus'
*The iconic centerpiece of the Fair, the large pond of water, was there to represent the long voyage Columbus took to the New World

(Chicago, arts and crafts, and early Frank Lloyd Wright)'s_Columbian_Exposition

Art Nouveau

1893 - 1905

An effort by artists, designers and architects to create a new style, based on nature rather than history Different names in different places; Liberty, Jugendstil, Sezessionstil Influences: Mackintosh, Arts and Crafts, Aubrey Beardsley, Jan Toorop, Viollet-le-Duc Decorative Arts: Emile Galle, glass, Louis Comfort Tiffany, Henri Van de Velde

Gesamtkunstwerk: The total work of art; a unified environment combining architecture, art, and decorative arts.

Tassel House

1893 - 1894

Brussels, By Victor Horta
*It is generally considered as the first true Art Nouveau building, because of its highly innovative plan and its ground breaking use of materials and decoration.
*he built a house consisting of three different parts. Two rather conventional buildings in brick and natural stone
*It might be superfluous to mention that these houses were very expensive and only affordable for the rich 'bourgeoisie'
(Art Nouveau)

The Reliance Building

1894 - 1895

By Burnham and Root
* It is the first skyscraper to have large plate glass windows make up the majority of its surface area, foreshadowing a feature of skyscrapers that would become dominant in the 20th century
*The first floor and basement were designed by John Root of the Burnham and Root architectural firm in 1890, with the rest of the building completed by Charles B. Atwood in 1895.
(Chicago, Arts and crafts, and Frank Lloyd Wright)

Castel Beranger


By Hector Guimard, Paris (French art nouveau)
Never entirely resolved as a total composition, the Castel Béranger is nonetheless an important transitional work in Guimard's career. The stem and branch-like character of both the interior furnishing and the exterior ironwork stand in a curious and brittle contrast to the articulate, architectonic but disjunctive elements that make up the cumbersome mass of the building's exterior. With 36 apartments, each different from the next, the Castel Béranger is a curious compound of rational planning and non-rational intent and expression. Guimard was to exploit its competition as an occasion for promoting le style Guimard. To this end he staged an exhibition of the building and its contents in the Salon du Figaro in 1899, while simultaneously publishing a book of the work under the title, L'Art dans l'habitation moderne. Le Castel Béranger. More acerbic than his flamboyant country houses of the turn of the century and located in the fashionable, fast-growing suburb of Auteuil, the Castel Béranger gave Guimard a prime opportunity with which to demonstrate the synthetic subtleties of his style, in which urban and rustic references could be judiciously mixed together."
(Art Nouveau)

Sezession Building

1897 - 1898

Joseph Maria Olbrich, Vienna, Austria
* one of the most widely recognized artworks of Secession style (a branch of Art Nouveau, also known as
*Secession refers to the seceding of a group of rebel artists from the long-established fine art institution.
*The motto of the Secessionist movement is written above the entrance of the pavilion: "To every age its art, to art its freedom"
(Art Nouveau)

Maison du Peuple

1898 - 1899

Brussels, auditorium
*was one of the largest works of Belgian architect Victor Hort
*In spite of a rather restrictive very irregular building place along a circular square and on a slope, Horta succeeded to construct a building with maximum functionality.
*The building had been mainly constructed in white iron
*Because of the experimental combination of brick, glass and steel this building was considered as an example of modern architecture.
(Art Nouveau)

Metro Entrances


Hector Guimard, France
*Constructed like the Crystal Palace out of interchangeable, prefabricated cast iron and glass parts, Guimard created his métro system in opposition to the ruling taste of French classical culture...Guimard's system flourished, emerging overnight like the manifestation of some organic force, its sinuous green cast-iron tentacles erupting from the subterranean labyrinth to support a variety of barriers, pergolas, maps, hooded light fittings and glazed canopies. These surrealistic 'dragonfly's wings'—to quote a contemporary critic—received a mixed, not to say chauvinistic, press, the verdigris colour of their iron supports being regarded as German rather than French. This imaginative attempt to render the Orphic myth in modern terms was to be complemented later by the astringent technical forms of the elevated section of the métro, built to the designs of the architect Jean Camille-Formigé and the engineer Louis Biette."
(Art Nouveau)

Parc Guell

1903 - 1914

*is a garden complex with architectural elements situated on the hill of El Carmel
* It was designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí
* it is one of the largest architectural works in south Europe
(Art Nouveau)

Weiner Werkstatte


as a production community of visual artists in Vienna, Austria bringing together architects, artists and designers.

Casa Battlo

1904 - 1907

Barcelona (Antonio Gaudi)
*Casa Batlló evokes the creativity and playfulness of Gaudí’s work through the incracite facades and creative floors.
*The local name for the building is Casa dels ossos (House of Bones), as it has a visceral, skeletal organic quality
*It seems that the goal of the designer was to avoid straight lines completely. Much of the façade is decorated with a mosaic made of broken ceramic tiles
(Art Nouveau)

Postal Savings Bank

1904 - 1906

Otto Wagner, Vienna
*he building is regarded as an important early work of modern architecture, representing Wagner's first move away from Art Nouveau and Neoclassicism.
*the hall is designed like an atrium, with a large glass skylight allowing natural light to enter the heart of the building at all times
*Wagner's key idea was to celebrate modern materials by developing new forms

*re-enforced concrete
*The building houses the headquarters of the Österreichische Postsparkasse (P.S.K.) bank, formerly the k.k. Postsparcassen-Amt (Imperial-Royal Postal Savings Office)
(Art Nouveau)

Palais Stocket

1905 - 1911

Joseph Hoffman, Brussels
*for banker and art lover Adolphe Stoclet
*Hoffman abandoned the fashions and styles that had come before and produced a building of true modernity; an asymmetrical compilation of rectangular blocks, underlined by exaggerated lines and corners
*This no-nonsense starkness is softened by the artistic windows, which break through the line of the eaves, the rooftop conservatory and the bronze sculptures of four nude males
*Josef Hoffman as his colleagues designed every aspect of the mansion, down to the door handles and light fittings. The interior is as spartan as the exterior, with upright geometric furniture and an avoidance of clutter.
(Art Nouveau)

Casa Mila


"La Perdera"-the Quarry (Antonio Gaudi), Barcelona
*t was a controversial design at the time for the bold forms of the undulating stone facade and wrought iron decoration of the balconies and windows
*Architecturally it is considered an innovative work for its steel structure and curtain walls – the façade is self-supporting
*Other innovative elements were the construction of underground car parking and separate lifts and stairs for the owners and their servants.
(Art Nouveau)

Steiner House


Adolf Loos, Vienna
*This design was much better accepted than Loos' earlier works and quickly became a worldwide example of rationalist architecture
*In his buildings, Loos normally starts with one main volume in which the space, configuration, and elements follows the rules and composition of classical architecture. He organizes the interior of that volume with smaller cubes, rectangles boxes, and cylinders arranged in a volumetric puzzle of sorts
*Loos built his buildings with roughcast walls and used the stucco to form a protective skin over the bricks. Loos did not want to use the stucco as a cheap imitation rock and condemned that practice
(Art Nouveau)

The Woolworth Building


New York, Cass Gilbert
(58 stories)
Gothic style "Cathedral of Commerce"
*The construction cost was US$13.5 million and Woolworth paid all of it in cash.
*The building's tower, flush with the main frontage on Broadway, is raised on a block base with a narrow interior court for light. The exterior decoration was cast in limestone-colored, glazed architectural terra-cotta panels
*Engineers Gunvald Aus and Kort Berle designed the steel frame, supported on massive caissons that penetrate to the bedrock. The high-speed elevators were innovative, and the building's high office-to-elevator ratio made the structure profitable
(New York skyscraper)

La Citta Nuova


"New City" Drawings
*A group of these drawings called Città Nuova (“New City”) was displayed in May 1914 at an exhibition of the Nuove Tendenze group, of which he was a member. Although Sant’Elia’s ideas were Futuristic, it has been questioned whether he was actually a member of the group. Essentially he was a socialist who felt that a complete break with architectural styles of the past and historic solutions to urban design was needed.
*He conceived of the city as a symbol of the new technological age. It was an affirmative environment for the future, however, in opposition to the negating inhuman Expressionistic city of the future conceived by Fritz Lang in the 1926 film classic Metropolis.

Maison Dom-Ino

1914 - 1915

Le Corbusier
*open floor plan
*It was a prototype as the physical platform for the mass production of housing. It was given the name because the floor plan resembled a domino game piece and because the units could be aligned in a series like dominoes, to make row houses of different pattern.
* . The frame was to be completely independent of the floor plans of the houses thus giving freedom to design the interior configuration.
(Le Corbusier)

VIlla Schwob


La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
*The villa is built in Oriental style. It was commissioned in 1912 and completed in 1916. He used the Regulating Lines design principle in this building for the first time.
(Le Corbusier)

New York Zoning Regulations based on ratios of height to street width.


Monument for the Third International

1919 - 1920

Vladimir Tatlin,
*design for a grand monumental building by the Russian artist and architect Vladimir Tatlin, that was never built. It was planned to be erected in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, as the headquarters and monument of the Comintern
*built from industrial materials: iron, glass and steel
*was envisaged as a towering symbol of modernity
*would have dwarfed Eiffel Tower
*The main framework would contain four large suspended geometric structures. These structures would rotate at different rates of speed
*base was cube that would hold lectures
*The Monument is generally considered to be the defining expression of architectural constructivism, rather than a buildable project.
*Symbolically, the tower was said to represent the aspirations of its originating country[2] and a challenge to Eiffel Tower as the foremost symbol of modernity.[4] Soviet critic Viktor Shklovsky is said to have called it a monument "made of steel, glass and revolution."
(New Content and New Forms)'s_Tower

L’Esprit Nouveau

1920 - 1925

Le Corbusier, Paris, France
* temporary building constructed in 1925 within the framework of the International Exhibition of Decorative Arts in Paris

(Le Corbusier)

Maison Citrohan

1920 - 1922

aka "the machine of living."
Le Corbusier, Germany
*build housing that could be built in series like machines
*one of the basic themes of Le Corbusier's interest in industrialization and new forms of housing from which was expected to emerge a logical and economic house for all.
*s visual experience (ouvrir les yeux) was taken from and area of popular bars in Paris: two parallel walls, two stories below an attic and having a great free entry point of light

Zeilenbau rows


Otto Haesler, Gropius and others in Dammerstock, Karlsruhe.
Rows of housing oriented towards the sun with 2.5x height between rows

The Sommerfeld House

1920 - 1922

Gropius and A. Meyer, wooden walls and reliefs by Joost Schmidt, furnishings by Marcel Breyer, Berlin Germany

*The angular lines and the reasons for refraction of light wood engraving by Martin Jahn are the expressionist and visionary of the house.
*The exterior and interior decoration is inextricably linked to the building, showing the recovery of post-war German expressionist forms, which became the foundation of the Bauhaus Gropius for Wimar.
(The Bauhaus)

New York Skyscraper

1920 - 1930

Manhattan “the capital of capital; ”dense clusters of skyscrapers in Lower Manhattan and Midtown. New style appears, Art Deco or “moderne”,

Contemporary City for 3 Million


Le Corbusier
*The centerpiece of this plan was a group of sixty-story cruciform skyscrapers built on steel frames and encased in curtain walls of glass. The skyscrapers housed both offices and the flats of the most wealthy inhabitants
*These skyscrapers were set within large, rectangular park-like green spaces.
*center of the planned city was a transportation center which housed depots for buses and trains as well as highway intersections and at the top, an airport.
* segregated the pedestrian circulation paths from the roadways
*glorified the automobile
* set far back from the street housed the proletarian workers.
(Le Corbusier)

Book: Vers Une Architecture (Towards a New Architecture)


By Le Corbusier
*advocating for and exploring the concept of modern architecture. The book has had a lasting effect on the architectural profession, serving as the manifesto for a generation of architects, a subject of hatred for others, and unquestionably a critical piece of architectural theory
(Le Corbusier)

American Radiator Building


New York, Raymond Hood
*The structural form is based on Eliel Saarinen's unbuilt competition entry for the Tribune Tower, augmented with a strong use of color
*The architects combined Gothic and modern styles in the design of the building. Black brick on the frontage of the building (symbolizing coal) was selected to give an idea of solidity and to give the building a solid mass.
*Other parts of the facade were covered in gold bricks (symbolizing fire), and the entry was decorated with marble and black mirrors
(New York Skyscraper)

Schroder House,


In Utrecht, by Gerrit Rietveld,
*Mrs. Truus Schröder-Schräde commissioned the house to be designed preferably without walls
* She envisioned a house that was free from association and could create a connection between the inside and outside. The house is one of the best known examples of De Stijl-architecture and arguably the only true De Stijl building
*Initially, Rietveld wanted to construct the house out of concrete. It turned out that it would be too expensive to do that on such a small building. The foundations and the balconies were the only parts of the building that were made out of concrete. The walls were made of brick and plaster. The window frames and doors were made from wood as well as the floors, which were supported by wooden beams. To support the building, steel girders with wire mesh were used.
*There is little distinction between interior and exterior space. The rectilinear lines and planes flow from outside to inside, with the same colour palette and surfaces. Even the windows are hinged so that they can only open 90 degrees to the wall, preserving strict design standards about intersecting planes, and further blurring the delineation of inside and out.
(Cubism and De Stiji, New Content and New Forms)

Lenin Podium


Plan Voisin for PAris


Le Corbusier
*sponsored by an automobile manufacturer
* proposed to bulldoze most of central Paris north of the Seine and replace it with his sixty-story cruciform towers from the Contemporary City,
*placed within an orthogonal street grid and park-like green space.
(Le Corbusier)

Frankfurt Housing

1925 - 1930

Ernst May, Frankfurt
*housing settlement project with affordable residences, facilitated a life in air, light and open space
*The functional design of the residential blocks and terraced houses has created standards that are still followed to the present day
(Modern Houses and Housing)

Chicago Tribune Building


Chicago, John Mead Howells and Raymond Hood
* is a neo-Gothic building
*In 1922 the Chicago Tribune hosted an international design competition for its new headquarters, and offered $100,000 in prize money with a $50,000 1st prize for "the most beautiful and distinctive office building in the world"
* The ornate buttresses surrounding the peak of the tower are especially visible when the tower is lit at night.
(New York Skyscraper)

Bauhaus Building

1925 - 1926

Gropius and A. Meyer, Dessau, Germany

*was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught
*The Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in Modernist architecture and modern design

Le Corbusier's 5 Points of a New Architecture


Le Corbusier

5 Points of a New Architecture, 1926

  1. Pilotis
  2. Free Plan
  3. Free Façade
  4. Horizontal Ribbon Window
  5. Roof Garden

The Frankfurt Kitchen


Grete Schutte-Lihotsky
Motion Studies, efficient kitchen

Villa Stein at Garches

1926 - 1927

Le Corbusier, (Garches, Paris, France)
*He designed spacious homes in middle class neighborhoods on the outskirts of Paris
*This is one of the most striking houses
*conception of volume in his designs comes from his solid modeling
*This is an exercise in which the intuition of the exterior of the building is secondary to the space and functional elements
*The cubical feeling is broken only with oval shapes, inspired by the chimneys of the big transatlantic luxury ships. However, there is still a classic principle in both shapes: the proportions of the facade are purely Palladian. The vertical arrangement of the space is quite clear and logical.
(Le Corbusier)

Residence of Phillip Lovell


Rudolph Micheal Schindler: Newport, California
* Philip M. Lovell, was inspired by a style of healthy living, with guidelines for proper diet and exercise. Schindler also adopted these principles and addressed these concerns in the design of the beach house
*The arrangement of the living quarters on the north side of the house maximize the circulation of fresh air
*The Lovell Beach House is generally considered one of the greatest works of pioneering modern architect, R. M. Schindler. It demonstrates an early use of concrete which predates and predicts the post-war Brutalist style, in which concrete is left unsurfaced, and structure is distinct from enclosure. ... The house is lifted above its beach site and cradled in five concrete frames in the shape of figure 8's. These were poured in place. The enclosed areas were shop-fabricated and hoisted into position. The play of forms in the advancing and receding planes are related to the De Stijl movement begun in Holland in 1917.
(Modern Houses and Housing)

Lovell "Health" House


Richard Neutra: Los Angeles, CA
*steel frame, sprayed gunite wall panels
*described as the first steel frame house in the United States, and also an early example of the use of gunite (sprayed-on concrete
*In essence the house reflects Neutra's interest in industrial production, and this is most evident in the repetitive use of factory-made window assemblies
*Neutra installed two Ford Model-A headlights in the main stairwell
(Modern Houses and Housing)

Tugendhat House

1928 - 1930

Mies van der Rohe, Ludwig: Brno, Czechoslovakia
*Mies' design principle of "less is more" and emphasis on functional amenities created a fine example of early functionalism architecture, a groundbreaking new vision in building design at the time.
*Mies used the revolutionary iron framework which enabled him to dispense with supporting walls and arrange the interior in order to achieve a feeling of space and light.
*The cost of building the villa was very high due to the unusual construction method, luxurious materials, and the use of modern technology for heating and ventilation. On the lower-ground level, was used as a service area.
(Modernism in Mies & Wright)

Villa Savoye at Poissey


Le Corbusier, Paris, France
*used the 5 points of architecture and reenforced concerete
*Unlike his earlier town villas Corbusier was able to carefully design all four sides of the Villa Savoye in response to the view and the orientation of the sun
*The plan was set out using the principle ratios of the Golden section: in this case a square divided into sixteen equal parts, extended on two sides to incorporate the projecting façades and then further divided to give the position of the ramp and the entrance.
(Le Corbusier)

Cite de Refuge (Salvation Army Hostel)


Le Corbusier: Paris
*Le Corbusier's first opportunity to create accommodation for the urban poor, under the philanthropy of the Princesse to Polignac,
*The core of Le Corbusier's design was the dormitory slab with a sheer glass curtain wall
*In the spirit of the free plan, Le Corbusier took the entrance hall components out of the dormitory block, constructing a geometric pathway through separate reception buildings outside
(Le Corbusier and Beyond)

Chrysler Building


William Van Alen, New York
*is an Art Deco style skyscraper
* It is still the tallest brick building in the world, albeit with an internal steel skeleton
*12 stories with glass-wrapped corners, creating an impression that the tower appeared physically and visually light as if floating in mid-air
*As Walter Chrysler was the chairman of the Chrysler Corporation and intended to make the building into Chrysler's headquarters,[14] various architectural details and especially the building's gargoyles were modeled after Chrysler automobile products like the hood ornaments of the Plymouth; they exemplify the machine age in the 1920s
(New York Skyscraper)

Empire State Building


New York,Shreve, Lamb and Harmon, 102 stories
*The building was designed from the top down.
*The construction was part of an intense competition in New York for the title of "world's tallest building"
*The project was completed ahead of schedule and under budget. Instead of taking 18 months as anticipated, the construction took just under fifteen. Due to reduced costs during the Depression, the final costs totaled only $24.7 million
*produced the building drawings in just two weeks, using its earlier designs for the Reynolds Building in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and the Carew Tower in Cincinnati, Ohio
(New York Skyscraper)

Broadacre City

1934 - 1958

Frank Lloyd Wright
*was an urban or suburban development concept proposed by Frank Lloyd Wright throughout most of his lifetime.
*Many of the building models in the concept were completely new designs by Wright, while others were refinements of old ones, some of which had been rarely seen.
*Broadacre City was the antithesis of a city and the apotheosis of the newly born suburbia, shaped through Wright's particular vision. It was both a planning statement and a socio-political scheme by which each U.S. family would be given a one acre (4,000 m²) plot of land from the federal lands reserves, and a Wright-conceived community would be built anew from this. In a sense it was the exact opposite of transit-oriented development
* There is a train station and a few office and apartment buildings in Broadacre City, but the apartment dwellers are expected to be a small minority. All important transport is done by automobile and the pedestrian can exist safely only within the confines of the one acre (4,000 m²) plots where most of the population dwells.
(Modern Houses and Housing)

Falling Water

1934 - 1937

Frank Lloyd Wright: Bear Run, Pennsylvania
*Once Wright had decided the location of the house, he had the obvious problem of building it there. The location of the north bank of Bear Run was not large enough to provide a foundation for a typically built Wright house.
* The Kaufmanns planned to entertain large groups of people, so the house would need to be larger than the plot allowed. Also, Mr. and Mrs. Kaufmann requested separate bedrooms as well as a bedroom for their adult son and an additional guest room
*Wright's solution to the problem of space came when he decided on a cantilevered structure
* both for its dynamism and for its integration with the striking natural surroundings
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

1st Herbert Jacob's house


Frank Lloyd Wright: Madison, WI
*The First Jacobs remains the prototype house of Wright's dream development, Broadacre City.
*The open arrangement of its living room wing, that is, the elimination of a separate dining room and the direct relationship of the kitchen to the eating area was to be adopted in the so-called ranch-style houses that populated post-war American suburbs
*Aesthetically as well as structurally, the Usonian House was meant to introduce a new, modern standard of form following function in home building.
(Modern Houses and Housing)

Johnson Wax Administrative Center

1936 - 1939

Frank Lloyd Wright: Racine, Wisconsin
*The Johnson Wax Headquarters were set in an industrial zone and Wright decided to create a sealed environment lit from above, as he had done with the Larkin Administration Building
* The building features Wright's interpretation of the streamlined Art Deco style popular in the 1930s.
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Taliesin West


Frank Lloyd Wright: Scottsdale, Arizona
*Wright felt very strongly about the connection to the desert. He said: “Arizona needs its own architecture… Arizona’s long, low, sweeping lines, uptilting planes. Surface patterned after such abstraction in line and color as find “realism” in the patterns of the rattlesnake,
*The structure's walls are made of local desert rocks, stacked within wood forms, filled with concrete.
*right always favored using the materials readily available rather than those that must be transported to the site.
*Natural light also played a major part in the design. In the drafting room, Wright used translucent canvas to act as a roof
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Illinois Institute of Technology

1939 - 1956

Mies van der Rohe: Illinois
*Van der Rohe's master plan for the IIT campus was one of the most ambitious projects he ever conceived and the campus, with twenty of his works, is the greatest concentration of his buildings in the world
*The layout of the campus departs radically from "traditional college quadrangles and limestone buildings".[54] The materials are inspired by the factories and warehouses of Chicago's South Side[
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Guggenheim Museum

1943 - 1959

Frank Lloyd Wright: New York City
*the cylindrical museum building, wider at the top than the bottom, was conceived as a "temple of the spirit" and is one of the 20th century's most important architectural landmarks
*ts unique ramp gallery extends from just under the skylight in the ceiling in a long, continuous spiral along the outer edges of the building until it reaches the ground level
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Johnson Wax Administrative Center, Research Tower

1943 - 1945

Frank Lloyd Wright: Racine Wisconsin
he Research Tower was a later addition to the building. Cantilevered from a giant stack, the tower's floor slabs spread out like tree branches, providing for the segmentation of departments vertically. Elevator and stairway channels run up the core of the building. The single reinforced central core, termed by Wright as a tap root, was based on an idea proposed by Wright for the St. Mark's Tower in 1929. Wright recycled the tap root foundation in the Price Tower in Bartlesville, Oklahoma in 1952. Freed from peripheral supporting elements, the tower rises gracefully from a garden and three fountain pools that surround its base while a spacious court on three sides provides ample parking for employees.
The Research Tower is no longer in use because of the change in fire safety codes, although the company is committed to preserving the tower as a symbol of its history
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Farnsworth House

1945 - 1951

Mies van der Rohe: Plano, Illinois
* It is a one-room weekend retreat in a once-rural setting, located 55 miles (89 km) southwest of Chicago's downtown on a 60-acre (24 ha) estate site
*The program was to design the house as if it were for himself
*The notion of a single room that can be freely used or zoned in any way, with flexibility to accommodate changing uses, free of interior supports, enclosed in glass and supported by a minimum of structural framing located at the exterior, is the architectural ideal that defines Mies' American career
(Mies van der Rohe)

Unite d’Habitation

1946 - 1952

Le Corbusier: Marseilles
*a modernist residential housing design principle
*The building is constructed in béton brut (rough-cast concrete), as the hoped-for steel frame proved too expensive in light of post-War shortages.
*The building also incorporates shops with architectural bookshop,[4] sporting, medical and educational facilities, a hotel which is open to the public,[5] and a gastronomic restaurant, Le Ventre de l'Architecte
(Le Corbusier and Beyond)'Habitation


1947 - 1950

Levitt and Sons Inc. New York
*Levittown was designed to provide a large amount of housing at a time when there was a high demand for affordable family homes
*William Levitt is considered the father of modern suburbia
(Modern Houses and Housing),_New_York#History

Lake Shore Drive Apartments

1948 - 1951

Mies van der Rohe: Chicago, Illinois
*The towers were not entirely admired at the time they were built, yet they went on to be the prototype for steel and glass skyscrapers worldwide
*Shore Drive is covered in non-functional I-beam mullions
*he mullions on his buildings reflect the inner structure and therefore give truth to the aesthetic of the building. The idea of truth in architecture aligns with the aesthetic and principles of the international style as taught at the Bauhaus.
(Mies van der Rohe)

Eames House (Case study house #8)


Charles and Ray Eames: Pacific Palisades, California
*Of the twenty-five Case Study Houses built, the Eames house is considered the most successful both as an architectural statement and as a comfortable, functional living space.
*The idea of a Case Study house was to hypothesize a modern household, elaborate its functional requirements, have an esteemed architect develop a design that met those requirements using modern materials and construction processes, and then to actually build the home.
(Modern Houses and Housing)

S.R. Crown Hall

1950 - 1956

Mies van der Rohe:
*Home of the architecture department at IIT
*Crown Hall is considered architecturally significant because van Der Rohe refined the basic steel and glass construction style, beautifully capturing simplicity and openness.
*Crown Hall is characterized by an aesthetic of industrial simplicity, with clearly articulated exposed steel frame construction.
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Maisons Jaul

1952 - 1956

Le Corbusier: France
Maisons Jaoul are a celebrated pair of houses in the upmarket Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine, designed by Le Corbusier and built in 1954-56. They are among his most important post-war buildings and feature a rugged aesthestic of unpainted cast concrete "béton brut" and roughly detailed brickwork.

Chandigarh Legislative Assembly

1953 - 1962

Le Corbusier:Chandigarh Legislative Assembly:Chandigarh, Punjab, India

*This building did not work because India was not ready for the modernism yet
(Le Corbusier and Beyond)

Seagram Building

1954 - 1958

Mies van der Rohe: New York City
*One of the style's characteristic traits was to express or articulate the structure of buildings externally
* It was a style that argued that the functional utility of the building’s structural elements when made visible, could supplant a formal decorative articulation; and more honestly converse with the public than any system of applied ornamentation.
*American building codes required that all structural steel be covered in a fireproof material, usually concrete, because improperly protected steel columns or beams may soften and fail in confined fires.[9] Concrete hid the structure of the building
*On completion, the construction costs of Seagram made it the world's most expensive skyscraper at the time, due to the use of expensive, high-quality materials and lavish interior decoration including bronze, travertine, and marble
*Mies used non-structural bronze-toned I-beams to suggest structure instead. These are visible from the outside of the building, and run vertically, like mullions, surrounding the large glass windows
(Modernism in Mies & Wright)

Notre Dame de Haut, Chapel


Le Corbusier: Ronchamp
*The structure is made mostly of concrete and is comparatively small, enclosed by thick walls, with the upturned roof supported on columns embedded within the walls, like a sail billowing in the windy currents on the hill top
*In the interior, the spaces left between the walls and roof and filled with clerestory windows, as well as the asymmetric light from the wall openings, serve to further reinforce the sacred nature of the space and reinforce the relationship of the building with its surrounding
*The lighting in the interior is soft and indirect, from the clerestory windows and reflecting off the whitewashed walls of the chapels with projecting towers.
*The nature of the site would result in an architectural ensemble that has many similarities with the Acropolis – starting from the ascent at the bottom of the hill to architectural and landscape events along the way
*You cannot see the building until you reach nearly the crest of the hill. From the top, magnificent vistas spread out in all directions.
(Le Corbusier and Beyond)

Toronto- Dominion Centre;TD Bank Tower, Banking Pavilion and Royal Trust Tower

1967 - 1969

Mies van der Rohe, Toronto
*The building features the typical Mies van der Rohe's black steel I-shaped beam on the facade. The building is basically comprised of black steel elements and glazing.
*"The two-storey banking hall in the plaza is among the best spaces Mies ever made. As you are visiting the branch you will find yellow flowers in a fishbowl vase on the service counters just where Mies had put them.
*The height of each of Mies's two towers is proportioned to its width and depth,
(Modernism in Mies and Wright)

Monastery of Sainte-Marie de la Tourette


Le Corbusier: France

The buildings contain a hundred bedrooms for teachers and students, study halls, a hall for work and one for recreation, a library and a refectory. There is also a church, where the friars worship, and the circulation, which connects all the parts (the achievement of the traditional cloister form is rendered impossible here by the slope of terrain). On two levels, the loggias crowning the building (one for each acoustically isolated monk's cell) form brises-soleil. The study halls, work and recreation halls, as well as the library occupy the upper-level. Below are the refectory and the cloister in the form of a cross leading to the church. And then come the piles carrying the four convent buildings rising from the slope of the terrain left in its original condition, without terracing.
(Le Corbusier and Beyond)