A Mongol clan leader named Temujin wanted to unify the Mongols and be their leader. Many battles occurred where he defeated many rivals.
Genghis Khan is the title Temujin received. It means "universal ruler" and it is what he became for the Mongol clans.
Genghis Khan invades the northern Jin Empire. Shortly after however, he then had an interest towards the Islamic region west of Mongolia.
The Mongols control Central Asia due to the campaign of terror in which many cities were destroyed by the Mongols. Terror was a huge and effective weapon. Its campaign was due to Genghis Khan's anger toward the Muslims who murdered Mongol traders and an ambassador.
Genghis Khan dies due to an illness. His successors are left to finish his job expanding the empire. In under 50 years, the largest unified empire was created.
The Mongol is divided into 4 regions called khanates that were ruled by Genghis Khan's descendants. The title Great Khan is received by Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan. Mongolia and China made up Khanate of the Great Khan, Persia made up Ilkhanate, Central Asia made up Khanate of Chagatai, and Russia made up Khanate of the Golden Horde.
This Venetian trader traveled the Silk Road with his father and uncle. He is the most famous European that visited China. He arrived at Kublai Khan and then served him for 17 years.
Kublai Khan tries to conquer Japan again, where huge fleets were sent. Korea was ruined due to the tasks the Mongols enforced. Failure of the Mongols was met when a typhoon on the Sea of Japan destroyed the Mongol ships.
Kublai Khan dies. The Yuan Dynasty begins to decline. Many arguments were made amongst family members on who would rule, leading to 4 rulers in 8 years.
Chandragupta and an army killed the Nanda king. The king had been unpopular. When Chandragupta claimed the throne, the Mauryan Empire began.
The Mauryan Empire has expanded more than 2,000 miles. Northern India is united politically for the first time.
Chandragupta's son assumes the throne. He then rules for 32 years.
Chandragupta's grandson Asoka becomes king of the Mauryan Empire. He continues to rule like Chandragupta. He expands the empire through war.
Asoka dies. The empire starts to fall.
Greeks, Persians, and Central Asians come to northern India for the next 500 years. Although these invaders disrupted Indian society, they also brought new languages and customs.
Chandra Gupta I takes the title Great King of Kings. This was after marrying the royal daughter.
Samudra, son of Chandra Gupta I becomes king. Through conquest he expands the empire in the next 40 years.
Chandra Gupta II begins to rule. He begins to strengthen the empire in peaceful diplomatic negotiations and marriage alliances.
This is the end of the rule of Chandra Gupta II. The empire was strengthened by his peaceful rulings.
The Gupta Empire ends. The fall was caused by invasions from the Hunas or Central Asian nomads. The Hunas were related to the Huns.
Timur the Lame destroys Delhi. It was eventually rebuilt but it was completely destroyed before.
Babur inherits the kingdom. It is present day Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. He was eleven at the time.
12,000 troops were lead to victory against 100,000 men army of Delhi. He also defeats another army a year later.
Akbar, Babur's grandson rules. His name means Great. He rules India with wisdom and tolerance.
Mumtaz Mahal dies. She just gave birth to her 14th child. The Taj Mahal was then built as her memorial.
Shah Jahan becomes ill. His four sons then rush to the throne.
Aurangzeb rules. He expanded the empire to its greatest size while also weakening the empire.
Francesco Petrarch wrote sonnets about a woman named Laura. Little is known about her, but she died of a plague.
Cosimo de Medici wins control of Florence's government. He gave members of the ruling council loans to influence them because he didn't want the office for himself. He dies in 1464, leaving his family to control Florence.
This craftsman from Mainz, Germany creates a new printing press. It contains technologies used in many new ways. Books were then produced quickly and cheaply.
Leonardo's life and notebooks were mysterious. Only 17 of his paintings have survived.
The Turks conquer Constantinople. Christian scholars have fled to Rome.
The Hundred Years' War ends. The war was between France and England. Cities began to grow after its end and became wealthier.
Donatello's sculpture is created. He made realistic sculptures that showed personality, emphasized in expressions and postures.
He is Cosimo de Medici's grandson. He comes to power. He was known as Lorenzo the Magnificent and acts like he was elected when he rules as a dictator.
He was a Renaissance man. He was a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet. He is most famous for his ways of portraying the human body.
Born to a noble family, she married the Marquis of Pescara in 1509. She helped publish The Courtier with Castiglione and exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo.
A French king takes the throne in Naples and invades Northern Italy. Italian artists and writers flee to Northern Europe. The techniques of Italian Renaissance are introduced.
David was a biblical hero that was sculpted by Michelangelo. The statue displayed grace and strength and was 18 feet tall.
Leonardo da Vinci paints the Mona Lisa. This was thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo.
Erasmus writes his most famous work, The Praise of Folly. This made fun of greedy merchants, heartsick lovers, quarrelsome scholars, and pompous priests. Erasmus was a true Christian.
He writes The Prince. It displays human imperfection. In a political way, it shows how to can and sustain power.
Thomas More wanted to show society in its best ways. He wrote the book Utopia. This book was set in a place were all weaknesses of people and bad behaviors were taken out and people lived in a perfect world.
The book The Courtier was written by Baldassare Castiglione. It taught people how to become "Renaissance men."
After the peak of flemish paintings, Pieter Bruegel the Elder is introduced. He focused on realistic details and individual people, but greatly succeeded in painting large groups of people. Scenes from everyday life and vibrant colors were used.
Queen Elizabeth I ruled in the Elizabethan Age. She knew French, Italian, Latin, and Greek, and wrote poetry and music. She was a great supporter of the development of English art and literature.
He is one of the greatest playwrights of all time and was born in 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. He lived in London in 1592 where he wrote poems and plays which would lead to him performing at the Globe Theater.