EMPIRES OF INDIA

Empires.

Mughal Empire.

1501 - 1857

From first Mughal Emperor to the last.

Maratha's Reign.

1707 - 1818

Maratha's conqured the Mughal Empire in 1707 and ruled most of India until 1818.

Company Raj.

1772 - 1858

The period of time known as the 'Company Raj'. From the first Governer- General to the last.

British Raj.

1858 - 1947

The period of time known as the 'British Raj'. Where Britian took control away from The British East India Company and began to rule India.

Goverment and Leadership.

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Mughal Empire emerged.

1501

The role of a Mughal Emperor was to protect the state and expand the empire. An emperor was a law maker, dispenser of justice and a commander of the army. The religion of this Empire was Muslim.

Akbars' Reign.

1556 - 1605

The third emperor of the Mughal Dynasty was Akbar, who greatly succeded in expanding the Mughal empire.

Aurangzeds' Reign.

1658 - 1707

The last powerful Empeor of the Mughal Empire was called Aurangzed and he ruled over this period of time.

Marathas' fight for independence.

1681 - 1707

Allied warlords, the Hindu Marathas' faught for Independence from the Mughal Empire.

Mughal Emperor Jahangah.

1701

Jahangah was in charge of the Mughal Empire at this time.

A fading empire.

1750

Many Mughal provinces break away from the Mughal Emperor and rulers from previous dynasties begin to reclaim their power. 'Nawabs' challenged the power of the emperor and local rules expanded their territories, formed separate alliances and competed with eachother.

British East India Company.

1765

Conflict in Nawab, Bengal led to the British East India Company taking over Bengal. With this new rule over Bengal the British East India Company began to replace the Mughal Empire and rule over most of India. The Company developted from a trading company to a governing body.

Governer- Generald Warren Hastings.

1772

The Governer- Generald of The British East India Company was Warren Hastings.

Governer- General Lord Bentwick.

1828

Lord Bentwick was the Governer- General of The British East India Company.

Governer- General Dalthouse.

1848

The Governer- General of The British East India Company was Dalthouse, who changed the education system and took over many areas of India.

Last Mughal Emperor.

1857

The last symbolic (non- powerful) Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah The Second was in power until 1857. Also, a group of 'sepoys' shot their comanding officers triggering the Indian Rebellion.

The Indian Rebellion.

1857 - 1858

The first Indian War of Independence was waged, which left Britan astonished. The British goverment then took away Indian rule from the British East India Company. Beginning a period of time called the 'British Raj'. The British leader of India was called the 'Viceroy of India'.

Power and Influence.

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Akbars' power.

1556 - 1605

Akbar maintained his power in many ways. These included forming alliences with Rajput Princes and marrying Rajput Princessess, having a massive army, warfare, subsiding rebellion and invading new territories. He also showed his supremity when meeting with lesser people by sitting on an elevated platform. Lesser ranks sat further away and the highest sat closer. The emperor would meet visitors in a public hall called a 'dubar'. A 'dubar' was a demonstration of the emperors wealth and power, it included grand pillars and walls built of sanstone and marble, intricate fabrics and jewels covering the walls. The 'dubar' was used for many generations by other rulers and the British after the Mughal Empire faded to show of their wealth and power. After Akbars' reign the emporer was veiwed as 'Gods' representive on Earth' and interpreter of Islamic law.

Seven year war.

1756 - 1763

A seven year war broke out between the British, Spanish and French trading companies. They faught for positions in India, and power and influence. These trading companies made private deals with local rulers and made alliances and treaties with each other which further diminished the Mughal Empire.

New power for British East India Company.

1770

Charles The Second, Britan's King permitted the Company allowance to the right to claim territory, mint money, keep an army, declare peace treaties and rule areas of India.

Laws and Rules.

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Changes to legal system.

1772

Governer- Generald, Warren Hastings, imposed the British system of law (introduced Western- style courts with judges and trials) and replaced many Indian traditions with the British's own.

New system of private property.

1793

The British East India Company began to introduce a new system of private property. It changed it from being 'collective ownership' of land, where 'zandibars' had the right to collect taxes from peasent farmers to 'private ownership' of land.

Change of language.

1802

British made English the official language of India.

Changes to education

1828 - 1835

Governer- Generald, Lord Bentwick made the first education policy based on the British politician, Lord Tomhas Mac'Auleys' ideas.

Indian Civil Service.

1829

The British East India Company put in a new administration service called the India Civil Service, which continued for years.

Changes to Indian Civil Service.

1833

The British East India Company and British law stated that Civil service officials had to be chosen on merit and not because of nationality or colour. Although, in practice positions still went to young male Britans.

Changes of language of education system.

1835

English became the language of the Indian Education system.

The Doctrine Lapse.

1848 - 1856

The Doctrine Lapse means that once an Indian ruler died without a heir, then the area he ruled was taken over by Britan.

Changes to education.

1848 - 1856

Governer- General, Dalthouse expanded the education system by introducing primary schools, high schools, colleges and universities. Many people still had little access to these schools due to money issues and only 5% of Indians' could read and write.

Changes to Indian Civil Service.

1857 - 1858

Indians who wanted to join the service had to study at school. Many Indians still couldn't apply to the prestigious schools from prior lack of education, little money and unavailability to travel. Many positions still went to young, male Britans.

Relgion.

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Aurangzeds' change to religon.

1658 - 1707

Aurangzed was a crazy Muslim who got rid of the Hindu Rajput rulers by imposing Islamic law on the empire. The effect this had was that the wealth of the empire declined and it caused disconnection with neighbours. This changed religion in India from having religious freedom for Hindus to Aurangzed forcing people to follow the Islamic rules.

Change to legal system related to relgion.

1772

Governer- General, Warren Hastings, put in place a new legal system in British syte but suitable to Indian culture. He created one system for the teachings of Muslims and a seperate system for the teachings of Hindu.

Banned practice of 'sahti'.

1829

The British East India Company banned the practice of 'sahti'. A tradition where the wife of a man, who is dead, had to commit suicide by throwing herself into the flames.

Industry.

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New market.

1701 - 1725

In the early 18th centry Britan, Fance, Holland and Portagul, all motivated by profit, sent trading companies to India. The new market included spices, Asian goods, teas, cotton and silks. The trading companies debated with Mughal Emperor, Jahangah, to set up trading bases, exchange goods, store supplies and repair equipment. A huge industry grew and developted whole cities, such as Calcutta, around the bases.

First railway and changes to Industry.

1851

First railway opens in India. India became a great exporter of cotton, jute, tea, opium, wheat and tobacco from the new macheines supplied by the British during the Industrial Revolution. This took out many home based industries in India, such as the hand woven cotton Industry. It left many peple without jobs or money.

Expansion of railway.

1880

9000 miles of railway cover and operate in India.

Everyday Lives.

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Peoples roles during Mughal Empire.

1501 - 1857

During the Mughal Empire, India was a patriachal society where men were held responsible for almost everything. Women were held responsible for domestic duties such as cooking, cleaning and child raising. If she was a peasant she would work alongside her husband in the feilds. Women, due to Islamic beleifs, wern't alowed to mix with men in the 'dubar' and had sepearte living quarters. Generally, the social class from one generation in a family was passed down to the next. Members of the Imperial Court during this period included extended family, servants, military officals, administrative officails, musicians and artists.

Change to the word 'zandibars'.

1793

As a result of the change of system of private property, the taxes increased and the 'zandibars' couldn't pay it so many of the owners lost their land. The meaning of the word 'zandibar' changed from tax collector to wealthy land owner.

British Rajs' promise.

1857 - 1858

The British Raj promised to rule with more respect for local customs, but still had a large influence in the form of Indian institutions and British way of life. Queen Victoria said that they would protect inheritance rights, honour, dignity, wouldn't force Christianity and respect ancient rights and customs. During this time 400 Native States and Princley States continued to be ruled by India Princes. Indian law still had and used a number of different systems, such as 'dubars', that existed under the Mughal Empire. Different ethnic and regious groups were allowed to be taught under different laws, traditions and beliefs.

Increase of British wives.

1869

Suez Canal opens. This causes a major increase in the number of British wives living in India.

Famine.

1876 - 1878

The worst famine in Indian history leaves many people devasted and hungry. Six million people died during this period. This is though to be due to the changes in industries, such as the cotton industry, taking up land that would of been used to grow food.

Bubonic plague

1895 - 1896

Bubonic plague spreads through India and bad weather causes crops to fail.

Famine.

1896 - 1897

Another famine leaves five million people dead.

Population.

1901

The total population of India is 294 million, with 62 million in the Princley States, 232 million in British- India and 170, 000 being Europeans.