Alexander I had been raised in the ideas of the Enlightenment and initially seemed willing to make reforms. With the aid of his liberal adviser, he relaxed censorship, freed political prisoners, and reformed the educational system. He refused, however, to grant a constitution or free the serfs in the face of oppression from the nobility. After the defeat of Napoleon, Alexander became a reactionary, and his government reverted to strict and arbitrary censorship. Soon opposition to Alexander arose from a group of secret societies.