APUSH Review Book 2

Main

Pikes Peak Gold Rush

1858

This was important because it started to cause people to move west. People wanted to discover gold and riches, so they moved west. The chances of getting rich were slim, but it still caused a shift in the culture and focus of Americans.

Congress authorizes Transcontinental Railroad

1862

This was important because the railroad would more easily connect the east and west. This would also create jobs for people. The issue that would rise is the problems with Native Americans.

Homestead Act

1862

This was a ploy by the government to cause people to expand west. The government had excess land that was not being inhabited, so they wanted to give it to people for free. The goal was for people to use the land to better the economy.

Morrill Land Act

1862

This helped higher education become more accessible. The government, through this act, gave land to the public education system into becoming better. They could build better buildings and such.

Sand Creek Massacre

1864

This was an event where US soldiers massacred hundreds of Indians. This caused people to see the US armed forces differently because they brutally murdered these people.

Credit Mobilier Scandal

1872 - 1873

This scandal occurred when the Union Pacifec Railroad created the credit mobilier of America to manipulate their money, but also to support politicians that would support them.

Panic of 1873

1873 - 1879

This panic was during Grant's presidency, due to industries making too many railroads, mines and factories for what the economy could handle. Banks had too many outstanding loans, causing a temporary plummet.

Bell Invents Telephone

1876

This was important because it caused a new age of communication. People could contact eachother much easier.

Compromise of 1877

1877

The goal of this compromise was to prevent further fighting between the North and the South. This compromise ended Reconstruction, and removed troops from the South.

Tuskegee Institute

1881

This was important because Booker T. Washington was such an influential man in the civil rights movement. He helped to push for better education for blacks by being part of the education system.

Interstate Commerce Act

1887

This created the Interstate Commerce Commission. It's role was to regulate the railroad's actions. They made sure they posted their rates, eliminated price discrimination, and reasonable and just shipping rates.

Hull House Founded

1889

When Jane Addams founded this settlement house, the attitude towards immigrants began to change. She was a major advocate for immigrants and helped people realize the necessity to help them become better.

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

This was the first act put in place to prevent the combination of industries and companies. The reason this was needed was because companies were combining in order to eliminate competition. This was installed to try and prevent that.

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896

This Supreme Court case ruled that "separate but equal" was constitutional because of the 14th Amendment's section about equal protection. The issue is that things weren't equal.

Spanish-American War

1898

This was a war about the battle for Texas. Texas wanted to be independent and the US wanted them.

Open Door Note

1900

This note was about open trade with China. The US determined that everyone should have equal access to China's ports for trade. This was a policy of equal opportunity.

Roosevelt Corollary

1904

This added to the Monroe Doctrine that warned Europeans of any involvement in Western affairs. It added that they should not invade in the Philippines unless they want to pick a fight.

NAACP Founded

1910

This is important because it was an official organization that advocated and worked towards equal rights. They were now able to try and push for rights politically through this organization.

Puerto Ricans get US citizenship

1917

This was important because it gave the Puerto Ricans the priveledge of US citizenship.

Red Scare

1919

This was the era that resulted from the Bolshevik Revolution. America was scared that the "red" communists would invade Aerica and take over.

18th Amendment

1919

This amendment brought about Prohibition. The South and West were in favor, but this move still changed American life significantly.

Nine-Power Treaty

1920

This froze Britain, the US, Japan, and France's power in China. It opened the door to China wide open.

Harlem Renaissance

1920

This was the renaissance to advance black rights. It was very affective and made a huge difference.

McNary-Haugen Bill

1921

This was made in order to keep agriculture prices high. To do this, the government was allowed to buy the extra product and sell it abroad. In order to compensate for monetary loss, the government taxed the farmers. Though Congress passed the bill 2x, Coolidge vetoed it.

Kellogg-Briand Act

1928

This was a pact between several countries to not start war. It's goal was to create overall peace and outlaw war. The only issue was that it still allowed for defensive war.

Black Tuesday

October 1929

On this day, millions of stocks were sold in a panic, but this caused the economy to crash.

Hundred Days

1933

This was the first hundred days that FDR was in office. He heavily introduced new legislation for the country in order to put actions to his words.

National Recovery Act

1934

The goal of this was to help labor, business, and unemployment. This was to help industry bounce back, and help workers have better opportunity.

Social Security Act

1935

This was done to prevent future depressions. It's goal was to provide federal-state unemployment insurance.

Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937

1935 - 1937

These acts claimed neutrality, but also set in place precautions and steps to take in the case of a foreign war.

Agricultural Adjustment Act

1936

This administration helped the farming industry recover by balancing cost and other aspects of the industry

Good Neighbor Policy

1937

This was an initiative to remove American presence from Larin America. This policy stated that America wouldn't interfere wi their domestic affairs, and that in addition they would be there for good exchange whether in economics or otherwise.

Hitler-Stalin pact

1939

This pact gave Hitler the power to make war on more countries without getting betrayed by Russia

Lend-Lease Bill

1940

The idea of this was to provide support for the war with weapons and money, but not soldiers.

V-E (Victory in Europe) Day

1945

This was the day that Germany surrendered and lost the war. Soon after hitler killed himself.

V-J (Victory in Japan)

1945

This was the day that Japan surrendered. THey finally gave up

Yalta Conference

February 1945

This conference was convened in order to decide how to divide up Germany amongst the three. This was not easy, because of the political differences between them

Manhattan Project

1946

This was the project that designed the atomic bombs. They were mostly British refugee scientists who helped us design and build the,.

Taft-Hartley Law

1947

This made labor unions liable for damages for disputes. It also outlawed the closed shop.

Brown v. Board of Education

1954

This was a Supreme Court verdict that ruled segregated schooling unconstitutional.

Federal Highway Act

1956

The goal of these was not just easier transportation. The goal was to be able to mobilize the military anywhere by making highways long enough to land aircraft. I also increased jobs and suburbanization.

Sputnik

1957

This was the first satellite to be sent into space. It was sent by the Soviets. It started a race in space.

National Defense Education Act

1958

This act gave money to needy college students in order to teach them more science and languages.

Berlin Wall

August 1961

This was the wall that surrounded east border of Berlin. The Russians wanted complete control. This was important because it isolated Berlin. It was a barrier between Russia, and Germany's ability to move forward.

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 1961

This occurred when the soviets won the fancies of Cuba. They started to use Cuba as a strategic site to attack the U.S. the two were at a stand still with a blockade until Russia finally backed off. This was significant because it followed the failure at the Bay if Pugs. This was significant because it affected the fear of Americans towards communism.

Civil RIghts Act

1964

This banned any segregation or discrimination in public places. It allowed the Feds to enforce this.

Iran-Contra Affair

1986

This scandal occurred in the Reagan administration but was revealed in 1986. Some of Reagan's officials facilitated arms to be sent to Iran. This was done in hopes of securing the release of hostages, as well as be able to fund the Nicaraguan contras

Operation Desert Storm

1991

This was a four day op that was named the 100 hour war. Iraq's defenses were completely destroyed.

9/11

September 11, 2001

This was a terrorist attack on the US. Two planes were sent into the Twin Towers in NYC, while one hit the pentagon, and another was intercepted by the passengers and landed in a field. That plane was thought to be planned to hit the White House

Hurricane Katrina

2005

This was a hurricane that hit New Orleans. It destroyed the city and there was several years of reconstruction, and the people were devastated.