Plate Tectonics Project

Alfred Lothar Wegner

German Scientist

Lifetime

November 1, 1880 - November 1930

Expeditions

1906 - 1930

1906–08: He took part in an expedition to Greenland to study polar air circulation.
1912–13, 1929, and 1930: Wegner took three more expeditions.
Died on the 1930 expedition.

The Idea of Pangea

1910

Alfred thought that in the Late Paleozoic era all of the continents formed one single landmass. He called it Pangea.

The Presentation

1912

Wegner finally introduced his idea of Pangea in lectures.

The Book

1915

Alfred published the book Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane or The Origin of Continents and Oceans. The book was about his idea of the single landmass millions of years ago.

Rejection

1930

Most scientists had rejected Alfred's idea of Pangea.

Alexander Du Toit

Professor of Geology at Johannesburg University

Lifetime

March 14, 1878 - February 15, 1948

Teaching

1901

Du Toit worked as a teacher for the Royal Technical College where he also studied mining engineering.

Teaching Again

1903

Alexander went back to South Africa and taught at the Geological Commission of Cape of Good Hope.

Death of a Loved One

1923

Alexander's first wife, Adelaide, died in 1923. They had one son together.

Second Marriage

1925

Evelyn Harvey was Du Toit's second wife.

De Beers Consolidated Mines

1927 - 1941

Du Toit was a geological consultant and was Geological Society of South Africa twice.

A Gift

1932

The Carnegie Institution gave Alexander a grant which enabled him to South America and compare the two coasts and the geology of the two continents.

The Book

1937

Our Wandering Continents is the book that Du Toit wrote. It was about the super continent Godwanaland.

R/V Atlantis

It is a reaserch vessel.

The Voyage

1931 - 1966

The Atlantis made 299 voyages and traveled more than 700,000 miles during this time period.

Delivery

1997

The R/V Atlantis was finally delivered to Woods Hole in April. The Atlantis had six labs and storage spaces, navagation systems, sea floor mapping sonar, satellite communication, three winches or vises, three cranes, machine shop, and specialized hangers for Alvin and other special vehicles.

Technology

Magnetometers

1832

A magnetometer is an instrument for measuring the intensity of a magnetic field, especially the earth's magnetic field.

Satellite Laser Ranging

1950

Satellite laser ranging is where scientists can accurately measure laser signals that are bounced off of reflective plates. Also, it was first invented around 1950.

Very Long Baseline Interferometry

1967

Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measures the difference between two radio wavefronts emitted from a quasar. A quasar is a one of over a thousand known extragalactic objects, starlike in appearance and having spectra with characteristically large redshifts, that are thought to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe.

The NOAA is formed

1970

The NOAA was formed for the purpose of the exploration of the ocean floors.

Global Positioning System

1974

Global Positioning System is a global system of U.S. navigational satellites developed to provide precise positional and velocity data and global time synchronization for air, sea, and land travel.

Glomar Challenger

The Beginning

1966

The contract between the National Science Foundation and The Regents, University of California was signed. This was the first phase of the Deep Sea Drilling Project.

The Keel

1967

At this time, the Levingston Shipbuilding Company put down the keel for the Glomar Challenger.
A keel is a a central fore-and-aft structural member in the bottom of a hull, extending from the stem to the sternpost and having the floors or frames attached to it, usually at right angles: sometimes projecting from the bottom of the hull to provide stability.

Launch

1968

A year after the keel was laid down, the Glomar Challenger was launched from Orange, Texas.

Acceptance

1968

In the same year of the launch, the Deep Sea Drilling Project accepted the Challenger.

Final Journey

1968 - 1983

Total distance penetrated below sea floor: 325,548 m
Total interval cored: 170,043 m
Total core recovered and stored: 97,056 m
Overall core recovered: 57%
Number of cores recovered: 19,119
Number of sites investigated: 624
Deepest penetration beneath ocean floor: 1,741 m
Maximum penetration into basaltic earth crust: 1,080 m
Deepest water (Leg 60 Site 461A): 7,044 m
Total distance traveled: 375,632 mi

Drummond Matthews and Fred Vine

Cambridge scientists

Drummond Hoyle Matthews

1931 - 1997

Fred Vine

1939 - 2013

Fred is still alive today and is 79 years old.

Discovery

1963

Drummond Matthews, Fred Vine, and some others discovered that the crust surrounding the midocean ridges showed alternating bands.

Comparing

1966

Matthews, Vine, and Morley compared magnetic reversals and magnetic striping pattern found on the ocean floor.

Harry H. Hess

Princeton University geologist and Naval Reserve Rear Admiral

Lifetime

1906 - 1969

Participation

1931

At this time, Hess took part in a submarine gravity study.

Teaching

1933 - 1934

Harry taught at Rutgers for a year in Washington, D.C.

Collage

1934

Harry went to Princeton.

The Paper

1938

Hess wrote his first paper while after taking part in the submarine gravity study.

Cell Dimensions

1952

Harry wrote a paper on cell dimensions after finding the fine-scale lamellae of calcium-poor orthopy-roxene were due to subsolidus exsolution of calcic pyroxene, rather than to twinning.

Robert S. Dietz

A scientist with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Lifetime

1914 - 1995

Collage

1933 - 1941

Dietz went to the University of Illinois.

The NEL

1950

While working for the Naval Electronics Laboratory (NEL), Dietz went on several oceanographic cruises to explore the Pacific basin.

Scripps Institution of Oceanography

1950 - 1963

During this time period, Robert was a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

The University of Tokyo

1953 - 1958

In Tokyo, Robert was a Fullbright Scholar at the University of Tokyo.

Kiyoo Wadati

A Japanese seismologist.

Lifetime

1902 - 1995

Earthquakes

1924 - 1927

Kiyoo figured out the hypocentres of 12 deep earthquakes between this time period.

Intermediate and Deep Earthquakes

1924 - 1934

In Kiyoo's fourth paper, he measured the frequency-distribution of the earthquakes between these years.

S minus P

1925

Kiyoo showed equal arrival times in P-Waves in the North Tazima earthquake.

The Papers

1928 - 1934

Kiyoo wrote several papers on intermediate and deep earthquakes about their frequency and spatial distributions.

Hugo Benioff

He is an American seismologist.

Lifetime

1899 - 1968

Collage

1921

Hugo graduated from Pomona College in this year.

Assistant

1924

Hugo worked as an assistant physicist the Carnegie Institution seismological program.

The Benioff Seismometer

1932

Hugo built the The Benioff Seismometer in 1932.

Ph.D.

1935

Hugo got his Ph.D. from the California Institute.

Sir Edward Bullard

British geophysicist

Lifetime

1907 - 1980

The Beginning

1929

Sir Edward's scientific life began in this year.

The Evidence

1931

Edward and others found evidence of diffraction patterns.

The Depression

1931

1931 was the worst year during the depression.

East Africa

1933 - 1934

Bullard, Harold Jeffreys, Johnny von Neumann, and Leslie FIavill worked on gravity measurement here.

Arthur Holmes

British geologist

Lifetime

1890 - 1965

The Book

1913

Arthur wrote the book, The Age of the Earth at this time.

The End

1920

Arthur had a son and a wife to support and could no longer do any research.

Announcement

1946

By this time, Arthur had enough evidence to declare that the Earth was 3 billion years old.

Prejudice

1953

In 1953, there was still prejudice and hesitance about continental drift. Arthur was among that party. He said, "I have never succeeded in freeing myself from a nagging prejudice against continental drift."

Dr. Ivan Getting

Extra

Lifetime

1912 - 2003

Bachelor of Science

1933

Ivan went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and got his bachelor of science.

Ph.D.

1935

Ivan went to Oxford University and got his Ph.D. in Astrophysics.

Vice President

1951

Ivan became the vice president of the Raytheon Corporation for engineering and research.

Stepping Stones

1960

The proposed technique of a three-dimensional, time-difference-of-arrival position-finding system was the beginning of the GPS.