1906–08: He took part in an expedition to Greenland to study polar air circulation.
1912–13, 1929, and 1930: Wegner took three more expeditions.
Died on the 1930 expedition.
Alfred thought that in the Late Paleozoic era all of the continents formed one single landmass. He called it Pangea.
Wegner finally introduced his idea of Pangea in lectures.
Alfred published the book Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane or The Origin of Continents and Oceans. The book was about his idea of the single landmass millions of years ago.
Most scientists had rejected Alfred's idea of Pangea.
Professor of Geology at Johannesburg University
Du Toit worked as a teacher for the Royal Technical College where he also studied mining engineering.
Alexander went back to South Africa and taught at the Geological Commission of Cape of Good Hope.
Alexander's first wife, Adelaide, died in 1923. They had one son together.
Evelyn Harvey was Du Toit's second wife.
Du Toit was a geological consultant and was Geological Society of South Africa twice.
The Carnegie Institution gave Alexander a grant which enabled him to South America and compare the two coasts and the geology of the two continents.
Our Wandering Continents is the book that Du Toit wrote. It was about the super continent Godwanaland.
It is a reaserch vessel.
The Atlantis made 299 voyages and traveled more than 700,000 miles during this time period.
The R/V Atlantis was finally delivered to Woods Hole in April. The Atlantis had six labs and storage spaces, navagation systems, sea floor mapping sonar, satellite communication, three winches or vises, three cranes, machine shop, and specialized hangers for Alvin and other special vehicles.
A magnetometer is an instrument for measuring the intensity of a magnetic field, especially the earth's magnetic field.
Satellite laser ranging is where scientists can accurately measure laser signals that are bounced off of reflective plates. Also, it was first invented around 1950.
Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) measures the difference between two radio wavefronts emitted from a quasar. A quasar is a one of over a thousand known extragalactic objects, starlike in appearance and having spectra with characteristically large redshifts, that are thought to be the most distant and most luminous objects in the universe.
The NOAA was formed for the purpose of the exploration of the ocean floors.
Global Positioning System is a global system of U.S. navigational satellites developed to provide precise positional and velocity data and global time synchronization for air, sea, and land travel.
The contract between the National Science Foundation and The Regents, University of California was signed. This was the first phase of the Deep Sea Drilling Project.
At this time, the Levingston Shipbuilding Company put down the keel for the Glomar Challenger.
A keel is a a central fore-and-aft structural member in the bottom of a hull, extending from the stem to the sternpost and having the floors or frames attached to it, usually at right angles: sometimes projecting from the bottom of the hull to provide stability.
A year after the keel was laid down, the Glomar Challenger was launched from Orange, Texas.
In the same year of the launch, the Deep Sea Drilling Project accepted the Challenger.
Total distance penetrated below sea floor: 325,548 m
Total interval cored: 170,043 m
Total core recovered and stored: 97,056 m
Overall core recovered: 57%
Number of cores recovered: 19,119
Number of sites investigated: 624
Deepest penetration beneath ocean floor: 1,741 m
Maximum penetration into basaltic earth crust: 1,080 m
Deepest water (Leg 60 Site 461A): 7,044 m
Total distance traveled: 375,632 mi
Fred is still alive today and is 79 years old.
Drummond Matthews, Fred Vine, and some others discovered that the crust surrounding the midocean ridges showed alternating bands.
Matthews, Vine, and Morley compared magnetic reversals and magnetic striping pattern found on the ocean floor.
Princeton University geologist and Naval Reserve Rear Admiral
At this time, Hess took part in a submarine gravity study.
Harry taught at Rutgers for a year in Washington, D.C.
Harry went to Princeton.
Hess wrote his first paper while after taking part in the submarine gravity study.
Harry wrote a paper on cell dimensions after finding the fine-scale lamellae of calcium-poor orthopy-roxene were due to subsolidus exsolution of calcic pyroxene, rather than to twinning.
A scientist with the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Dietz went to the University of Illinois.
While working for the Naval Electronics Laboratory (NEL), Dietz went on several oceanographic cruises to explore the Pacific basin.
During this time period, Robert was a professor at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.
In Tokyo, Robert was a Fullbright Scholar at the University of Tokyo.
A Japanese seismologist.
Kiyoo figured out the hypocentres of 12 deep earthquakes between this time period.
In Kiyoo's fourth paper, he measured the frequency-distribution of the earthquakes between these years.
Kiyoo showed equal arrival times in P-Waves in the North Tazima earthquake.
Kiyoo wrote several papers on intermediate and deep earthquakes about their frequency and spatial distributions.
He is an American seismologist.
Hugo graduated from Pomona College in this year.
Hugo worked as an assistant physicist the Carnegie Institution seismological program.
Hugo built the The Benioff Seismometer in 1932.
Hugo got his Ph.D. from the California Institute.
Sir Edward's scientific life began in this year.
Edward and others found evidence of diffraction patterns.
1931 was the worst year during the depression.
Bullard, Harold Jeffreys, Johnny von Neumann, and Leslie FIavill worked on gravity measurement here.
Arthur wrote the book, The Age of the Earth at this time.
Arthur had a son and a wife to support and could no longer do any research.
By this time, Arthur had enough evidence to declare that the Earth was 3 billion years old.
In 1953, there was still prejudice and hesitance about continental drift. Arthur was among that party. He said, "I have never succeeded in freeing myself from a nagging prejudice against continental drift."
Ivan went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and got his bachelor of science.
Ivan went to Oxford University and got his Ph.D. in Astrophysics.
Ivan became the vice president of the Raytheon Corporation for engineering and research.
The proposed technique of a three-dimensional, time-difference-of-arrival position-finding system was the beginning of the GPS.