In 1200, a Mongol clan leader Temujin sought to unify the Mongols under his leadership. He fought and defeated his rivals one by one.
In 1206, Temujin accepted the title Genghis Khan, or “universal ruler” of the Mongol clans.
Genghis Khan invaded the Northern Jin Empire in 1211.
By 1225, Central Asia was in Mongol control.
Genghis Khan dies in 1227 from illness
Kublai Khan is Genghis Khan' s grandson, and he assumes the title "Great Khan" in 1260
Marco Polo traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads with his father and uncle, arriving at Kublai Khan’s court around 1275.
in 1281, the Great Khan sent huge fleets against Japan.
Kublai Khan died in 1294. After his death, the Yuan Dynasty began to fade.
Chandragupta' claimed the throne by overthrowing the unpopular Nanda King.
By 303 B.C., the Mauryan Empire stretched more than 2,000
In 301 B.C., Chandragupta’s son assumed the throne. He ruled for 32 years.
Noble as his policies of toleration and nonviolence were, they failed to hold the empire together after Asoka died in 232 B.C.
For 500 years, beginning about
185 B.C., wave after wave of Greeks,
Persians, and Central Asians poured into
After his marriage, Chandra Gupta I took the title “Great King of Kings” in A.D. 320.
In AD 335, Chandra Gupta's son Samudra Gupta becomes king.
Chandra Gupta strengthened the empire through peaceful means.
In 415 AD, Chandra Gupta II's reign ended.
Over the next 100 years, the Gupta Empire broke into small king- doms. Many were overrun by the Hunas or other Central Asian nomads. The Empire ended about 535.
In 1398, Timur the Lame destroyed the city of Delhi.
In 1526, he led 12,000 troops to
Babur’s grandson was called Akbar, which means “Great.” Akbar cer- tainly lived up to his name, ruling India with wisdom and tolerance from 1556 to 1605.
In 1631, Mumtaz Mahal died at age 39 while giving birth to her 14th child.
When Shah Jahan became ill in 1657, his four sons scrambled for the throne.
A series of realistic, sometimes off-color stories. The stories are supposedly told by a group of worldly young people waiting in a rural villa to avoid the plague sweeping through Florence:
In 1434, he won control of Florence’s government. He did not seek political office for himself, but influenced members of the ruling council by giving them loans. For 30 years, he was dictator of Florence.
Cosimo de Medici died in 1464, but his family continued to control Florence.
Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks—and life—are mysterious. Some 3,500 pages closely covered with writings and drawings survive. His-writing is clear and easy to read, but only if you look at it in a mirror. No oneknows why he wrote backwards.
Leonardo planned scholarly works and great feats of-engineering that were never completed. Only 17 of his paintings survive. And yet the-work that Leonardo did produce is so amazing that it confirms his genius.
When the destructive Hundred Years’ War between France and England ended in 1453, many cities grew rapidly.
Christian scholars in Constantinople fled to Rome with Greek manuscripts when the Turks conquered Constantinople in 1453.
It was the first European sculpture of a free standing man since ancient times.
Cosimo de Medici died in 1464, but his family continued to control Florence. His grandson, Lorenzo de Medici, came to power in 1469. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent, he ruled as a dictator yet kept up the appearance of having an elected government.
Michelangelo was a Renaissance man.
He excelled as a painter, sculptor, architect, and poet.
Michelangelo is most famous for the way he portrayed the human body in painting and sculpture. Influenced by classical art, he created figures that are forceful and show heroic grandeur.
Among his achievements are the dome of St. Peter’s, the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the statue of David.
Vittoria Colonna exchanged sonnets with Michelangelo and helped Castiglione publish The Courtier. Her own poems express personal emotions.
Influenced by classical statues, Michelangelo sculpted David from 1501 to 1504. Michelangelo portrayed the biblical hero in the moments just before battle.
the Mona Lisa is thought to be a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, who, at 16, married Francesco del Giocondo, a wealthy merchant of Florence who commissioned the portrait
The Prince examines the imperfect conduct of human beings by
In 1528 Baldassare Castiglione wrote a book demonstrating now to be a "Renaissance Man".