AP World History


Mesolithic Age

10,000 BC - 8000 BC

transitional period

End of Paleolithic Age

10000 BC

used stone for tools
"early stone age"

Neolithic Age

8000 BCE - 3000 BCE

New Stone Age
Used Stone Tools
Agricultural Revolution
People start to settle
Job Specialization
Male Dominance in fields

Bronze Age

3000 BCE - 1200 BCE

Late Neolithic Age
Begin to use Bronze: Alloy of Copper and Tin
Writing first appears: Cuneiform in Mesopotamia


3000 BC

Iron Age

1200 BC - 550 BC

use of iron for tools

Beginning of Religions

700 BCE


Life of Gautam Buddha, Confucian, and Lao Tsu
Originated in India
No Caste System
Carried from India by Merchants

Order after the fall of the Zhou
Stressed education, good government, and filial piety
defined Chinese culture

5th Century BCE
adapted concepts of Yin and Yang
following the way/ Dao


Greek Civilization

600 BCE - 26 BCE

Trade in Greek grapes and olive oil for fish, grain, and honey
Spread of Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean world
Gods with human characteristics
Olympic games
Tragedy and Comedy
Philosophy emphasizing human reason

Roman Empire

27 BCE - 476 CE

Roads and aqueducts
Common language: Latin
Active trade
Birth of Jesus
Adapted Greek culture

Byzantine Empire

527 CE - 1453 CE

Eastern part of the Roman Empire
Thrived as a center of trade routes
Center of architecture and art

Battle of Tours


The battle between Muslims and Christian Franks
Halted the advance of Muslim armies into Europe at a point in Northern France

Bubonic Plague

1347 - 1348

Spread across Asia, Europe, and North Africa in the 1300's
spread by the Mongols by rats who infested water


1400 - 1650

Spanish Empire

1402 - 1975

Martin Luther's Reformation


95 Theses
ideas of faith not corruption
against Catholic Church
opposed indulgences

Scientific Revolution

1550 - 1700



1650 - 1800

East Asia

Shang Dynasty

1750 BCE - 1045 BCE

long distance trade
ancestor veneration
Yellow River

Zhou Dynasty

1040 BCE - 221 BCE

800-221 BC is Warring States Period
Mandate of Heaven

Warring States Period

800 BCE - 221 BCE

breaking up of the Zhou, no centralization

Qin Dynasty

221 BCE - 202 BCE

Gave China its name
Began the Great Wall
Standardized Chinese Language and Writing
Encouraged Silk Manufacturing

Han Dynasty

200 BCE - 220 CE

Beginning of the Chinese Civil Service Exam
Silk Road Trade
Paper Manufacture
A time of peace
Strong patriarchy
Poor harvests
Epidemic Disease
Moral Decline
Weak emperors
Unequal land distribution
Decline in trade
Barbarian invasions

Voyages of Zheng He

1400 - 1433

Massive expeditions into the Indian Ocean to display the glories of the Middle Kingdom
traded porcelain

Tokugawa Shogunate

1603 - 1860

South Asia

Harappan Civilization

2500 BCE

first truly advanced civilization

Mughal Empire

1500 - 1800

Middle East

Akkadian Empire

2340 BCE - 2113 BCE

Created by Sargon

Code of Hammurabi

1800 BCE - 1000 BCE

Babylonian Empire at Mesopotamia

Assyrian Empire

1000 BCE - 612 BCE

Ninevah: Capital
Epic of Gilgamesh


628 BCE - 330 BCE

Ancient Persian Religion
Emphasized a struggle between good and evil and rewards in the afterlife for those who followed a good life
Founded by Zoroaster
Peak was in the time of the Persians

Chaldean Empire

612 BCE - 539 BCE

Neo- Babylonian Empire

Persian Empire

539 BCE - 330 CE

Empire lasts until the rise of Islam
Tolerance towards conquered peoples' customs
Royal Road
Trade and Cultural Exchange with Greece

Alexander the Great

323 BCE

Unified Greek and Persian Culture
Reached the Indian Subcontinent in 327 BCE
Went as far as the Indus River, Set up Bactria State


32 CE

Jesus was the Messiah promised to the Jews
Salvation through faith in Jesus as God and Savior
A missionary religion
Spread of Christianity:
Paul became the greatest missionary of early Christianity
Paul undertook three missionary journeys throughout the Roman Empire in the first century CE



Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

first muslim empire
stretched to Cordoba Spain

Abbasid Caliphate

750 - 1258

Fatimid Dynasty

910 - 1171

north africa

The Crusades

1095 - 1270

Exposure of Europeans to Wealthy urban areas
introduced the Europeans to sugarcane, spices, and luxury goods from the east
increased trade for all

Ottoman Empire

1299 - 1922


Trans-Saharan Trade

300 CE

Principal route in classical times
Use of the camel and the camel saddle
Early trade in salt and palm oil
Supplied Rome with wild animals

Ibn Battuta Travels

1325 - 1349

Central Asia

Mongol Empire

1206 - 1370

Mongols ensured the safety of Eurasian trade and travels
Central Asian nomads
Traded meat and dairy product with farmers for grain and vegetables
created the largest land empire in history

Marco Polo

1271 - 1295

Travels to the Mongol Empire

New World


1400 BCE - 400 BCE

Human Sacrifice
huge architecture
ball game like squash

Aztec Empire

1427 - 1521

advanced society
writing, architecture, astronomy, human sacrifice

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

South America: Peru
Andean Mountains
Developed as Advanced Society, Conquered nearby lands

Reconquista of Spain


Atlantic Slave Trade

1502 - 1815

Triangular Trade Patterns
Plantation work in New World
Depopulating of Men