DWC Final Exam Timeline



1500 - 1600

group of English Protestants, including Calvinists, purify Catholic Church, believed the church was so corrupt that they had to separate but still believed same thing, supported by Elizabeth the I of England

Protestant Reformation start


sparked by Luther's 95 Theses

Counter/Catholic Reformation

1545 - 1648

starts with council of trent, ends with Thirty Years War

Religious Figures and Events

Boniface VIII

1294 - 1303

Pope, controversy with King Phillip IV, didn't believe that clergy should be taxed to support the state, chased out of Rome by French, 8th circle of Hell by Dante

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

7 popes living in France because of conflict with French, Clement V-Gregory XI

Martin V

1417 - 1431

Pope, Council of Constance elected Pope to end the great schism (three popes)

Sixtus IV

1471 - 1484

Pope during Renaissance, restored Sistine chapel with artists to decorate it and Vatican library, accused of nepotism, indulgences for art

Bartolome de las Casas

1484 - 1566

first ordained priest in America, Dominican, Spanish, Protector of the Indians, return to Spain to defend rights of Indians, against slavery colonial abuse, more humane ways of colonization, first to argue universal human rights

Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1556

Spanish, founder of Jesuits, emerged during counter reformation, devoted to catholic church because of obedience to Pope

"limpieza de sangre"


"cleanliness of blood" no Jewish or Muslim blood in government of church positions, after Reconquista

"Exsurge Domine"


"Arise O Lord" papal bull issued by Pope Leo X, in response to Luther's teachings that opposed the papacy, threatened to excommunicate Luther and censured 41 proposition from Luther's 95 Theses. Luther did not recant his ideas and burned the bull

Charles V


Hole Roman Emperor, presided over Diet of Worms, banned Luther's writings

Diet of Worms


assembly of Holy Roman Empire in Worms, Germany, brought up issues of Protestant Reformation, declared Luther as a heretic, banned Luther's writing

Paul III

1534 - 1549

Pope, came to power after Protestant Reformation, during counter reformation, brought church back together with new catholic orders, met with the Council of Trent (who had more power king or pope), didn't believe in slavery but never stopped slave trade

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

held by Pope Paul III, who has more power king or pope?, pope is master of council, condemn Protestantism, clarify Catholic Church points, church interprets scripture, need faith and works for salvation, Start of counter/catholic reformation

Matthew Ricci

1553 - 1610

Italian Jesuit priest, spread Jesuits to China and called the Servant of God

Pius V

1566 - 1572

Pope, declared thomas aquinas a doctrine of the church, excommunicated Elizabeth I of England as a heretic and persecution of Catholics

Robert Nobili

1577 - 1656

Italian Jesuit missionary that travelled to Southern India, adopted local customs of India that were not contrary to Christianity, used the method to get close to citizens and then convert them to Christianity

Urban VIII

1623 - 1644

Pope, disagreed with Galileo's heliocentric universe theory,summoned Galileo in 1633 and put him under house arrest

"Ex quo singulari"


papal bull by Pope Benedict XVI, addressed the issues of Catholic missionary activity in China and if Chinese are allowed to practice rituals to honor family and ancestors. Papal bull sided with Franciscans and Dominicans (not allowed) against Jesuits (rituals should be tolerated)


da Vinci

1452 - 1519

Perpective use in The Last Supper (1495-1498) and used fresco, Mona Lisa(1503-1506) commissioned by husband, change from religion to secular, Italian

Albrecht Durer

1471 - 1528

artist during Renaissance, self-portraits, 1500 painted himself to look like Jesus, God hand (2 fingers showing), popularity of artists becoming celebrities Adam and Eve 1504


1475 - 1564

Sistine Chapel Creation of Adam(1508-1512) is a self portrait , hand touching god symbolizes the artists' creative hand, David (1504) displayed in Florence square, symbol of power over Medici family, moved to square as symbol of no tyranny

Hans Holbein the Younger

1479 - 1543

German artist during Renaissance, lots of portraits, The Ambassadors has conflicting ideas about religion, Catholicism (crucifix) and Lutheranism (hymn book), religious works to portraits with incorporation


1483 - 1520

Renaissance Artist, The Sistine Madonna alterpiece Mary bringing Jesus down to world and cherubs act as a bridge between heaven and earth, Entombment of Christ (1507) altarpiece commissioned by wealthy woman in memory of he son that she acted harshly to during his death. Demonstrates you of altarpieces for own gain and women commissioning art after husbands are decreased


Raymond Sebond

1390 - 1436

Spanish Author that supported catholicism, attempted to show truths of Catholic Faith using reason not just divine authority


1466 - 1536

Dutch, wrote play about Pope Julius II, religious tolerance, rejected Luther's emphasis of faith alone, didn't believe in predestination, believed in free will, reformer but didn't want to break catholic church


1473 - 1543

heliocentric model, sun is center of the universe, start of Enlightenment and scientific Revolution


1484 - 1531

leader of Reformation in Switzerland, literal interpretation of Old and New Testaments, body and blood in Eucharist are symbolic

Thomas Muntzer

1489 - 1525

German theologian, anti-luthern writing, supported Anabaptists (leader), defeated at the end of the German Peasant's War


1496 - 1527

writer in Florence during the Renaissance, The Prince to Medici to describe how to rule, political science, do anything to get power and keep it, "Better to be feared than loved"


1509 - 1564

goal was reform, primacy of God, sinfulness in humanity, importance of scripture, grace and predestination, new form of church government and liturgy, led to Calvinism


1511 - 1553

Renaissance humanist, Spanish, math, science, medicine, eventually developed nontrinitarian Christiology, was part of Protestant Reformation, condemned by Catholics and Protestants tired as a heretic and burned at the stake


1564 - 1642

Italian, agrees with Copernicus' ideas but treats them as theory to avoid Inquisition but put under house arrest because bible believes in geocentric universe while Copernicus believes in heliocentric, father of modern astronomy, physics, modern science


1596 - 1650

beginning of Scientific Revolution, out of Middles Ages, natural philosophy (modern science), goes against church by looking at world without a religious influence, can't do science because it is based on philosophy but foundation is not firm because it isn't certain, move away from religion to science

John Locke

1632 - 1704

pre-enlightenment, forerunner of British Englightenment, philosopher, Christianity in its barest form (without conflict about practice) contains morals and ethics , "Two Treatises on Government" opposed absolute monarchy


1642 - 1727

Scientific Revolution and enlightenment, gravity, calculus, theory of light, laws of motion, influenced by Descartes, heliocentric, sun centered

Third Earl of Shaftesbury

1671 - 1713

Anthony Ashley Cooper, English politician, philosopher, and writer "father of Scottish Enlightenment", believes in ethics and that men are both important to themselves and society

John Wesley

1703 - 1791

his version of Anglicanism gave rise to the Methodist Church, followed the Arminian doctrine, encourage people to experience Jesus personally

"nullius in verba"


"Take nobody's word for it" Royal Academy of Science motto, President in 1709 was Isaac Newton until his death

David Hume

1711 - 1776

Scottish Philosopher, focused on Skepticism, Human experience is needed for truth (empiricism) therefore god cannot exist, he did not say this because he would be punished by death

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

follows in John Locke's footsteps, Wealth of Nation (1776), Scottish moral philosopher, "father of modern economics", collaborated with David Hume

Edward Gibbon

1737 - 1794

English history, member of parliament, criticizes organized religion in The History of the Decline and Fall of Roman Empire


Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1505

ended Reconquista, brought Spain to stability, low crime rate reduced debt, funded Columbus' trip to the new world in 1492

Thomas Cranmer

1489 - 1556

archbishop during Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary I, leader of english reformation, supported divorce of Henry VIII and Catherine of Argon believed king has rule over church, Book of Common Prayers, killed under Mary's rule for treason and heresy when she reinstated Catholicism in England

Mary Tudor

1514 - 1515

Queen of France, sister of King Henry VIII of England, mother of Lady Jane Grey (queen of england for a short time after Edward VI)

Anne Boleyn

1533 - 1536

married to King Henry VIII of England, had daughter (Elizabeth I), supported Lutheran ideas, allowed for annulment from Catherine of Argon (start of english reformation, split between church of england and roman catholic church), beheaded for adultery, but Henry VIII just wanted to remarry to have son

Jane Seymour

1536 - 1537

married to Henry VIII after Anne Boleyn, dies while giving birth to Edward VI

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, heir after Henry VIII's death, Protestantism was established for the first time in England, named cousin Lady Jane Grey as successor to avoid Catholicism with half sisters but Mary I took control and reversed Protestant reform

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary, step-brother Edward VI

"virgin queen" Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

queen of England, daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, came to power after bloody Mary(half sister), moderate Protestant, reduce religious passion, opposed Puritans, defeated Spanish Armada, imprisoned for a year under suspicions of supporting Protestant rebels, catholic heretic, and prosecuting christians

Spanish Armada


Spanish ship fleet to overthrow Elizabeth I and stop English involvement in Spain and Netherlands, unsuccessful, defeated by Queen Elizabeth I

Oliver Cromwell

1599 - 1658

military and political leader, overthrew monarchy, supported Parliament (roundheads), against King James I and King Charles I New Model Army, Puritan --break between Charles I and Charles II

James I

1603 - 1625

English Monarchy, anti-catholic, anti-puritan, divine right of kinda, Episcopal church model, King James Bible, after Queen Elizabeth I

Charles I

1625 - 1649

followed in Father's footsteps (James I), absolute tendencies that bothered Parliament, tax policies alienated merchants and nobles, led to English Civil War and his execution

Charles II

1660 - 1685

the Restoration Period, after English Civil War, after Cromwell's death, restored monarchy and parliament, clashed with parliament over reign, look control back from Commonwealth of England