European History

Main

Britain

War of the Roses

1450 - 1485
  • Lancaster vs. York

Establishment of Tudor dynasty

1485
  • first Tudor king Henry VII defeated last York king Richard III at Bosworth Field

France

Louis XI

1461 - 1483
  • advanced development of French territorial state
  • taille as permanent tax provided regular income
  • not completely successful in repressing French nobility (ex) Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy)
  • created base for later development of a strong French monarchy

Spain

Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile

1469

Institution of Spanish Inquisition

1478

Expulsion of Jews

1492

Expulsion of Muslims

1502

Portugal

Italy

Renaissance

1350 - 1550

End of Great Schism

1417
  • as a result of the Council of Constance
  • Great Schism was when there was a pope in Rome and a pope in Avignon, both of whom had excommunicated the other

Medicis take control of Florence

1434

Sforzas replace Viscontis as rulers of Milan

1447

Peace of Lodi

1454
  • ended a half-century of war
  • Italy relatively peaceful until 1494
  • alliance system: MNF vs. VP (Milan, Naples, Florence vs. Venice, the Papacy)

Valois-Habsburg Wars in Italy

1494 - 1527
  • started when Ludovico Sforza (Il Moro) invited French Charles VIII to intervene in Italian politics
  • Charles VIII occupied Naples
  • other Italian states turned to Spain (Ferdinand of Aragon) for help
  • after 1510, wars continued by French Francis I and Spanish Charles I (HRE Charles V)

Sack of Rome by HRE Charles V

1527
  • Spanish Charles I (HRE Charles V) ends Italian wars
  • Spaniards dominate Italy

Russia

Ivan III

1462 - 1505
  • principality of Moscow created
  • independent of Mongols by 1480

Scandinavian Countries

Poland

Holy Roman Empire

Johannes Gutenberg's printing press

1450
  • 1455, Gutenberg's Bible

German States

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Austria

Hungary

Reign of King Matthias Corvinus

1458 - 1490
  • Hungary is the dominant power in eastern Europe for his reign
  • Hungary returned to weak rule after his death

Ottoman Turkish Empire

Defeat of Constantinople

1453